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Switzerland
Practice Relating to Rule 29. Medical Transports
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides: “Transports of wounded and sick civilians, disabled, elderly, children and expectant mothers, by convoys and hospital trains, shall be respected and protected in the same way as hospitals.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 37.
The manual further provides that medical vehicles “shall be respected and protected. They shall not be attacked, nor harmed in any way, nor their functioning be impeded, even if they do not momentarily hold any wounded or sick.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 82.
Switzerland’s Aide-Memoire on the Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict (2005) states: “I spare and respect personnel and installations as well as equipment and means of transport of the medical services … without discrimination unless they open fire on my comrades or me.” 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Rule 7.
The Aide-Memoire further states with regard to the protective signs of the red cross and red crescent:
Correct behaviour
- Personnel, installations, material and means of transport of the medical services as well as carriers of signs or objects marked with distinctive signs must be respected and spared;
Prohibited is/are …
- Attacks against persons or objects carrying this sign[.] 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Chart of Protective Signs.
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states that, in application of the principle of distinction, a “[c]ivilian lorry marked with the red cross emblem” that “transports wounded soldiers” must not be shot at, explaining: “Transport of the wounded with the distinctive emblem: it is not a military objective”. 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, § 172.
The Regulation also states:
13 Protected persons
13.1 Behaviour with regard to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked and medical and religious personnel
176 Medical personnel, equipment and means of transport as well as localities used by the military service must be spared and must not be hindered in the fulfilment of their mission.
14 Protected objects
14.1 Medical establishments
203 All medical establishments must be respected and protected. They must not be attacked or damaged, nor prevented from pursuing their activities, even when no wounded or sick persons are currently being cared for therein. The right to protection applies to all fixed establishments, such as hospitals, medical posts and depots, as well as to all mobile medical units, such as medical vehicles, field hospitals and first-aid posts.
204 All medical establishments are signalled by means of a clearly visible distinctive emblem.
206 Medical material and means of transport must not be destroyed. Checks on the content of vehicles and containers of the medical services, however, are permitted. If no abuse of the distinctive emblem is found, they must be allowed to continue their journey, if the situation allows.
15 Methods of warfare
15.2 Prohibited methods of warfare
225 Indiscriminate attacks, i.e. attacks which cannot distinguish between protected persons/objects and military objectives, as well as attacks directed against protected persons/objects or acts of revenge are prohibited in any place and at any time.
17 Sanctions for violations of the international law of armed conflict
17.1 General provisions
237 The following in particular are criminal offences: … harmful acts against internationally protected persons and objects[.] 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 176, 203–204, 206, 225 and 237. The German language version of the third sentence of § 206 notes: “… , if the security situation [“Sicherheitslage“] allows”.
Switzerland’s Military Criminal Code (1927), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states in a chapter entitled “War crimes”:
Art. 110
Articles 112–114 apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 112
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
d. medical units [and] buildings, material or vehicles marked with a distinctive sign provided for by international humanitarian law or whose protected character is recognizable even without a distinctive sign, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 110 and 112(1)(d). The word “and” in square brackets has been inserted to reflect the placement of “medical” in the official language versions of Article 112(1)(d).
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states under the title “War crimes”:
Art. 264b
Articles 264d–264j apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 264d
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
d. medical units [and] buildings, material or vehicles marked with a distinctive sign provided for by international humanitarian law or whose protected character is recognizable even without a distinctive sign, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 264b and 264d (1)(d). The word “and” in square brackets has been inserted to reflect the placement of “medical” in the official language versions of Article 112(1)(d).
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Civilian objects
International humanitarian law distinguishes between Civilian objects and Military objectives, prohibiting acts of violence against the former. Other provisions provide special protection for certain specific civilian objects, some of which are expected to bear distinctive signs: medical units and means of transport, … . Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 12.
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides:
Art. 91. Medical aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, etc.) exclusively used for the transport of the wounded and sick shall be respected and protected … The time, height and route of the flight, as well as the means of identification, must be agreed upon beforehand between the belligerents.
Art. 92. Unless there is an agreement to the contrary, flights over enemy territory are prohibited. Medical aircraft must obey each order to land. After inspection, they may continue their flight with their passengers. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Articles 91–92.