相关规则
Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 4. Definition of Armed Forces
Section A. General definition
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states:
Armed forces of a party to the conflict consist of all organized armed forces, groups and units that are under a command responsible to that party for the conduct of its subordinates … Armed forces shall be subject to an internal disciplinary system, one purpose of which is to enforce compliance with the LOAC. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-1, §§ 7–8.
With respect to militias, volunteer groups and organized resistance movements, the manual states:
10. In some cases, a party to a conflict may have armed groups fighting on its behalf that are not part of its armed forces. Such groups may be fighting behind enemy lines or in occupied territory. Partisans and resistance fighters who fought in occupied territory in the Soviet Union and France during World War II are examples of such groups.
11. Members of militias, volunteer corps and organized resistance movements, belonging to a party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, are combatants provided they:
a. are commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
b. wear a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;
c. carry arms openly; and
d. conduct their operations in accordance with the LOAC.
12. Militias, volunteer corps and organized resistance movements must “belong” to a party to the conflict in the sense that they are acknowledged by that party as fighting on its behalf or in its support. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-2, §§ 10–12.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
1. Armed forces of a party to the conflict consist of all organized armed forces, groups and units that are under a command responsible to that party for the conduct of its subordinates. In Canada, for example, the armed forces consist of the Regular Force and the Reserve Force.
2. A party to the conflict may be a government or an authority not recognized by an adverse party (for example, Free French Forces raised by the French government-in-exile during World War II). Armed forces shall be subject to an internal disciplinary system, one purpose of which is to enforce compliance with the LOAC.
3. Individual members of the armed forces, acting separately from their units, are combatants, even when employing methods of surprise or violent combat, provided they wear an appropriate uniform while so operating. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 304.
With regard to militias, volunteer groups and organized resistance movements, the manual states:
1. In some cases, a party to a conflict may have armed groups fighting on its behalf that are not part of its armed forces. Such groups may be fighting behind enemy lines or in occupied territory. Partisans and resistance fighters who fought in occupied territory in the Soviet Union and France during World War II are examples of such groups.
2. Members of militias, volunteer corps and organized resistance movements, belonging to a party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, are combatants provided they:
a. are commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
b. wear a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;
c. carry arms openly; and
d. conduct their operations in accordance with the LOAC.
3. Militias, volunteer corps and organized resistance movements must “belong” to a party to the conflict in the sense that they are acknowledged by that party as fighting on its behalf or in its support. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 305.