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Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 161. International Cooperation in Criminal Proceedings
Section E. Cooperation with international criminal tribunals
In 2000, Canada enacted the Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes Act, criminalizing genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes and making consequential amendments to other Canadian laws to implement the 1998 ICC Statute in domestic law. In particular, the Act contains sections codifying offences against the administration of justice of the International Criminal Court. 
Canada, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes Act, 2000.
Canada’s Extradition Act (1999), as amended to 2005, states:
REASONS FOR REFUSAL
44. (1) The Minister [of Justice] shall refuse to make a surrender order if the Minister is satisfied that
(a) the surrender would be unjust or oppressive having regard to all the relevant circumstances; or
(b) the request for extradition is made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing the person by reason of their race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin, language, colour, political opinion, sex, sexual orientation, age, mental or physical disability or status or that the person’s position may be prejudiced for any of those reasons.
(2) The Minister may refuse to make a surrender order if the Minister is satisfied that the conduct in respect of which the request for extradition is made is punishable by death under the laws that apply to the extradition partner.
46. (1) The Minister shall refuse to make a surrender order if the Minister is satisfied that
(a) the prosecution of a person is barred by prescription or limitation under the law that applies to the extradition partner;
(b) the conduct in respect of which extradition is sought is a military offence that is not also an offence under criminal law; …
(c) the conduct in respect of which extradition is sought is a political offence or an offence of a political character.
47. The Minister may refuse to make a surrender order if the Minister is satisfied that
(a) the person would be entitled, if that person were tried in Canada, to be discharged under the laws of Canada because of a previous acquittal or conviction;
(b) the person was convicted in their absence and could not, on surrender, have the case reviewed;
(c) the person was less than eighteen years old at the time of the offence and the law that applies to them in the territory over which the extradition partner has jurisdiction is not consistent with the fundamental principles governing the Youth Criminal Justice Act;
(d) the conduct in respect of which the request for extradition is made is the subject of criminal proceedings in Canada against the person; or
(e) none of the conduct on which the extradition partner bases its request occurred in the territory over which the extradition partner has jurisdiction.
47.1 The grounds for refusal set out in sections 44, 46 and 47 do not apply in the case of a person who is the subject of a request for surrender by the International Criminal Court. 
Canada, Extradition Act, 1999, as amended to 2005, Sections 44, 46(1) and 47–47.1.
In an annual report issued in 2003 on its Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated:
Apprehending and dealing appropriately with persons who have allegedly committed or are complicit in crimes against humanity or war crimes requires a great deal of international effort and cooperation. To that end, Canada supports the work of many international bodies including the International Criminal Court, the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR) and the hybrid Special Court for Sierra Leone. 
Canada, Sixth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2002–2003, p. 2.
On the support provided by Canada’s Department of Citizenship and Immigration (CIC) to international criminal tribunals, the annual report stated:
CIC’s extensive experience in screening for modern war crimes makes the department a valuable partner to the International Tribunals, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). CIC is a participant in the Government of Canada’s activities to support international tribunal prosecutions and investigations. 
Canada, Sixth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2002–2003, p. 6.
With regard to the role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the annual report stated:
International criminal investigations are a two-way street; the RCMP War Crimes Section also provides assistance to foreign police and international law enforcement authorities such as the United Nations International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. 
Canada, Sixth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2002–2003, p. 9.
The annual report further stated:
DOJ’s [Department of Justice’s] War Crimes Section continues to strengthen its working relationship with the Tribunals and European governments. DOJ began working with European governments and police officials on a response to the issue of the movement of war criminals across borders and the sharing of best practices. The section is also actively involved in providing support to the RCMP in several on-going investigations in Europe and Africa.
The International Assistance Group (IAG) of the Department of Justice Federal Prosecution Service assists the RCMP and the Department of National Defence in their support to the investigations and prosecutions of the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia. Additionally, IAG reviews requests for mutual legal assistance under Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act from foreign governments in the investigation and prosecution of modern day war crimes. Such assistance is also available to the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. 
Canada, Sixth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2002–2003, p. 11.
In 2003, in a submission to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the case of The Prosecutor v. Nikola Šainović and Dragoljub Ojdanić (Case No. IT-99-37-PT), Canada stated:
The Government of Canada has been and remains a strong supporter of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (“The Tribunal”). Canada has cooperated consistently with the Tribunal and fully accepts the need for a robust, independent Tribunal with the power necessary to fulfill the mandate accorded to it. In furtherance of this mandate, Canada recognizes and supports the power of the Tribunal to issue orders to States for the production of evidence. 
Canada, Submission to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, February 2003, Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 2003, volume XLI, p. 451.
In an annual report issued in 2004 on its Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated regarding the work of three government departments involved in the Program:
1. Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA):
CBSA’s extensive experience in screening for modern war crimes makes the agency a valuable partner to the International Tribunals, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Tribunal for Rwanda. CBSA continues to participate in the Government of Canada’s activities to support international tribunal prosecutions and investigations. 
Canada, Seventh Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003–2004, p. 4.
2. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
International criminal investigations are a two-way street. The RCMP War Crimes Section provides assistance to foreign police and international law enforcement authorities such as the United Nations International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. 
Canada, Seventh Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003–2004, p. 8.
3. Department of Justice (DOJ)
DOJ’s War Crimes Section continues to strengthen its working relationship with the International Tribunals and European governments by meeting frequently with their representatives.
DOJ’s War Crimes Section is also actively involved in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Working Group which examines the tribunal’s requests for information or access to witnesses located in Canada.
The International Assistance Group (IAG) of the Department of Justice Federal Prosecution Service works with the RCMP and the Department of National Defence to support the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia. IAG also reviews war crimes related requests for mutual legal assistance from foreign governments, and from the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and the International Criminal Court. 
Canada, Seventh Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003–2004, p. 10.
In 2005, in a statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the representative of Canada stated:
Australia, Canada and New Zealand condemn the ongoing grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur, Sudan which are having a huge impact on the civilian population in that part of the country.
The international community is acting upon its responsibility to protect, as witnessed by the recent decisions of the United Nations Security Council. We are particularly pleased that the UN Security Council has referred the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court in accordance with the recommendation of the International Commission of Inquiry. As we have said many times, this referral represents the best option for ensuring timely accountability for these serious international crimes and for deterring further atrocities not only in Darfur. The International Criminal Court was established precisely to fulfill these dual roles – to ensure accountability for, as well as to deter, the commission of the most serious international crimes.
These promising initial actions will need support if they are to succeed. We encourage all members of the international community to offer all the necessary support to the peace process, human rights missions, international agencies and humanitarian organizations as well as to the International Criminal Court.
We call on the Government of Sudan, all parties to the conflict and the international community to cooperate fully with the Mission of the African Union, the United Nations Mission in Sudan, the United Nations and all its agencies, humanitarian organizations, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and all its special procedures, as well as the International Criminal Court. 
Canada, Statement by the representative of Canada before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2005, pp. 1–2.
In an annual report issued in 2005 on its Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated:
Canada’s War Crimes Program partners provide assistance and information to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). All the partners are represented at the Interdepartmental Working Group for the ICTY and ICTR, which examines the tribunals’ requests for assistance from Canada.
They work with the International Assistance Group (IAG) of the Department of Justice Federal Prosecution Service and the Department of National Defence to support the international tribunals. The IAG also reviews war crimes-related requests for mutual legal assistance from foreign governments, the international tribunals and the International Criminal Court (ICC).
The partners have established long-standing reciprocal relationships with the international tribunals, which provide logistical support and enable the sharing of resources and information. During the past year, the ICTY provided much needed assistance to RCMP [Royal Canadian Mounted Police] investigative teams who travelled to the former Yugoslavia and other locations to conduct their work. An RCMP team visited Rwanda to provide training on forensic interviewing to members of the ICTR investigative staff and prosecutors from the Rwandan government. In addition, an RCMP war crimes investigator met with representatives of the ICC in The Hague for an exchange of information on investigations in Africa.
In 2004–2005, DOJ [Department of Justice] officials visited the ICTY, the ICTR, and the ICC to conduct research and to discuss information sharing, access to witnesses and general cooperation. The DOJ also received members of the ICTR, the ICC and the Sierra Leone Special Court to further these discussions.
Within the limits of the law, the CBSA [Canada Border Services Agency] shares intelligence and research material with the international criminal tribunals and like-minded countries, particularly the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and other European countries. 
Canada, Eighth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2004–2005, p. 5.
In an annual report issued in 2006 on its Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated:
The chief objective of the program is denial of safe haven in Canada to persons involved in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide. At the same time, Canada contributes to the global fight against impunity for war criminals through cooperation with other countries and international tribunals …
CBSA [Canada Border Services Agency] researchers provide support and intelligence not only internally, but also to national and international partners and international criminal tribunals.
When a suspected war criminal enters Canada or is already living in Canada, a number of enforcement measures may be used, including exclusion from refugee status, findings of inadmissibility followed by deportation, extradition, surrender to international tribunals, criminal investigation and prosecution, and revocation of citizenship …
In 1999, the Extradition Act was amended to allow Canada to enter into agreements for extradition on a case-by-case basis and to allow for surrender to international tribunals …
Canada’s War Crimes Program plays a leading role in international efforts to bring war criminals to justice. Mutual legal assistance and exchanges of information with other countries and international bodies are an essential component of the global battle against impunity. Reciprocal relationships with international tribunals and other countries permit the sharing of resources, expertise, information, research and logistical support.
Program partners provide assistance and information to the international criminal tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. All the partners are represented at the Interdepartmental Working Group for the international tribunals, which examines the tribunals’ requests for assistance from Canada. They also work with the International Assistance Group of the DOJ’s [Department of Justice’s] Federal Prosecution Service and the Department of National Defence to support the international tribunals. The International Assistance Group reviews requests relating to war crimes or crimes against humanity for mutual legal assistance from foreign governments, international tribunals and the International Criminal Court.
DOJ officials and RCMP [Royal Canadian Mounted Police] investigators visited several foreign countries during the period covered by this report, including Honduras, Colombia, Croatia and Serbia, to discuss access for investigators and researchers and to develop Memoranda of Understanding on international cooperation. The RCMP provides assistance to foreign investigative agencies.
CIC [Citizenship and Immigration Canada] visa officers abroad are responsible for reporting and liaison on global migration, country situations and emerging trends, and have developed ongoing relationships with host countries, other diplomatic missions, international organizations and the various international criminal tribunals. This is particularly true of those in Geneva, Brussels and Washington, where international conferences and meetings of international organizations discuss issues related to migration and human rights. 
Canada, Ninth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2005–2006, pp. 1, 2, 3, 12 and 13.
In an annual report issued in 2007 on its Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated:
If persons suspected of involvement in atrocities do arrive in Canada or are found to be living in Canada, the program partners assess the situation to determine the most appropriate remedy. Remedies include the following: criminal proceedings jointly administered by the DOJ [Department of Justice] and the Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC) based on investigations conducted by the RCMP [Royal Canadian Mounted Police] under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act; enforcement of the IRPA [Immigration and refugee Protection Act] led by the CBSA [Canada Border Services Agency], including denial of access to and exclusion from refugee protection and deportation; citizenship revocation led by CIC [Citizenship and Immigration Canada] and the DOJ [Department of Justice]; and extradition to foreign states and surrender to international tribunals under the Extradition Act, led by the DOJ.
On the international stage, Canada plays a leadership role in global efforts to hold perpetrators of human rights abuses accountable for their crimes through cooperation with other countries and international tribunals. Because of its coordinated approach and its capacity to apply a range of legislative remedies, the War Crimes Program has become a model for other countries.
CBSA researchers provide support and intelligence not only internally, but also to national and international partners and international criminal tribunals …
When a suspected war criminal enters Canada or is already living in Canada, a number of enforcement measures may be used, including exclusion from refugee status, findings of inadmissibility followed by deportation, extradition to foreign states, surrender to international tribunals, criminal investigation and prosecution, and the revocation of citizenship …
In 1999, the Extradition Act was amended to allow Canada to enter into agreements for extradition on a case-by-case basis and to allow for surrender to international tribunals. Requests for extradition or surrender are not made public unless the Attorney General of Canada gives the authority to proceed.
The War Crimes Program plays a leading role in international efforts to bring war criminals to justice. Mutual legal assistance and exchanges of information with other countries and international bodies are an essential part of the global battle against impunity. Reciprocal relationships with international tribunals and other countries enable the sharing of resources, expertise, information, research and logistical support.
The partners provide assistance, information and legal and investigative support to the international criminal tribunals for Rwanda (ICTR) and the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the ICC. All of the partners are represented in the Interdepartmental Working Group for the international tribunals, which examines the tribunals’ requests for assistance from Canada. They also work with the DOJ’s International Assistance Group and the Department of National Defence to support the international tribunals. The International Assistance Group reviews requests relating to war crimes or crimes against humanity for mutual legal assistance from foreign governments, international tribunals and the ICC.
The RCMP has a close reciprocal relationship with the international criminal tribunals sharing information and resources. During the reporting period, ICTR justice officials visited Canada and the ICTY assisted RCMP investigators working in the former Yugoslavia. DOJ counsel provided important legal support to the international criminal tribunals in Sierra Leone, Cambodia and Rwanda. Canada is the fourth largest contributor to the SCSL.
CIC [Citizenship and Immigration Canada] visa officers abroad are responsible for reporting and liaison on global migration, country situations and emerging trends, and have developed ongoing relationships with host countries, other diplomatic missions, international organizations and international criminal tribunals. This is particularly true of those in Geneva, Brussels and Washington, where international meetings are held to discuss issues related to migration and human rights.
Program partners recognize the benefits of international cooperation and outreach in the maintenance of its objective to fight impunity and the importance of spreading this message on a global scale. 
Canada, Tenth Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2006–2007, pp. 1, 3, 4, 12 and 13.
In an annual report issued in 2008 on its Program on Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes, the Government of Canada stated:
Introduction
Canada’s global efforts to hold perpetrators of human rights abuses accountable for their crimes through cooperation with other countries and international tribunals have made Canada a leader on the international stage …
War Crimes Program Activities from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2008
Canada uses a holistic approach in its domestic and international fight against impunity of persons involved in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide. The Program has a broad arsenal of nine legislative remedies at its disposal, including the ability to prevent war criminals from entering Canada through the Denial of Visas Overseas and Denials at Port of Entry; and methods to deal with war criminals already in Canada, using Exclusion; Admissibility Hearings; Removals; Revocation of Citizenship; Extradition; Surrender to International Criminal Tribunals; and Criminal Investigations and Prosecution. …
Remedies for War Criminals in Canada
The War Crimes Program may proceed with any of the seven remaining remedies to deal with war criminals who have entered Canada: Exclusion of refugee status in the context of a refugee claim; Admissibility Hearings; Removal; Revocation of Citizenship; Extradition; Surrender to International Tribunals; and Criminal Investigations and Prosecution.
Extradition and Surrender to International Criminal Tribunals
In 1999, the Extradition Act was amended to allow Canada to enter into agreements with other countries for extradition on a case-by-case basis and to allow for surrender of Canadians to international tribunals …
International Cooperation and Outreach
The War Crimes Program plays a leading role in international efforts to bring war criminals to justice. Strong relationships with international tribunals and other countries permit the sharing of research, logistics and investigative support.
The War Crimes Program partners provide assistance and information to the international criminal tribunals for Rwanda (ICTR) and the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) and the International Criminal Court (ICC). All the partners are represented at the Interdepartmental Working Group for the international tribunals, which examines the tribunals’ requests for assistance from Canada. The International Assistance Group of the DOJ [Department of Justice] reviews requests related to war crimes or crimes against humanity for mutual legal assistance from foreign governments, international tribunals and the ICC.
The RCMP [Royal Canadian Mounted Police] War Crimes Section has a close reciprocal relationship with the international criminal tribunals, sharing information and resources. During the reporting period, ICTR justice officials visited Canada and the ICTY assisted RCMP investigators working in the former Yugoslavia.
CBSA researchers provide support and intelligence not only internally, but also to national and international partners and international criminal tribunals. During the 2007–2008 fiscal year, CBSA [Canada Border Services Agency] researchers at national headquarters responded to 3,239 requests for information (RFIs) on cases of alleged war crimes or crimes against humanity, an increase of 134 percent from 1,386 RFIs in 2006–2007 …
International conferences not only promote the exchange of information, but also improve the overall level of cooperation between countries. The RCMP (investigators) and the DOJ (counsel and analysts) attended an ICC conference in December 2007 in the Hague focusing on war crimes investigation tools and methods …
Conclusion
Canada’s War Crimes Program has evolved since its inception. Its collaborative inter-departmental approach, international cooperation and outreach initiatives have earned acclaim in the global community. 
Canada, Eleventh Annual Report, Canada’s Program on Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 1 April 2007–31 March 2008, pp 1–8.
In 2011, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council on the situation in Libya, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada stated:
On February 26, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1970 [2011], on the situation in Libya.
Canada welcomes this landmark decision and strongly supports the key provisions of that resolution.
Canada was among the first to call for the referral of the situation in Libya to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to help ensure that those responsible for ordering and carrying out those atrocities are held accountable. We are pleased that the Security Council has taken action on this.
My government demands that the Libyan regime comply with all aspects of this resolution immediately …
We call all states to join us in rendering full cooperation to the Court. 
Canada, Address by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the UN Human Rights Council, 28 February 2011.
In 2011, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the deputy permanent representative of Canada stated:
[A]ccountability for those who violate international law by targeting civilian populations is fundamental. Accountability not only ensures that perpetrators are punished for their crimes, but it can also serve as an effective deterrent against future crimes. Canada has been a consistent supporter of the international courts and tribunals that strive to hold individuals to account and contribute to the prevention of such crimes. The recent decision by the Security Council to refer the situation in Libya to the International Criminal Court has sent a clear message that there will be consequences for committing serious international crimes – including for those who have ordered and incited illegal attacks on civilian populations. 
Canada, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Canada before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 10 May 2011.
In 2011, in an address to the House of Commons on the situation in Libya, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada stated:
Canada has been vocal in condemning the targeting of civilians by the Qadhafi regime, and the impact of that regime’s actions on the hundreds of thousands of people who have been trapped in Libya or forced to flee its borders … In the face of this blatant disregard for both human rights and international law, Canada has demanded that the regime halt its attacks against its own people and that perpetrators of crimes are brought to justice. We have been particularly disgusted by abhorrent reports [of] torture and sexual violence as weapons against the Libyan population. Such actions are international crimes and may be war crimes or crimes against humanity. Canada calls for a full and impartial investigation of these allegations so that the perpetrators can be brought to justice.
Canada was among the first to call for the UN Security Council to refer the situation to the International Criminal Court. 
Canada, House of Commons, Address by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the House of Commons on the situation in Libya, 14 June 2011.
In 2011, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the deputy permanent representative of Canada stated:
It is the primary responsibility of every state to investigate and prosecute those suspected of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The recent conviction of four former military officers for their role in a massacre of civilians during the armed conflict in Guatemala – the first such conviction against military officers in that country – is an example of national accountability mechanisms at work. This underlines the need for states to fulfill their obligations to investigate and prosecute persons suspected of serious international crimes, and where appropriate, cooperate with international institutions to ensure that those responsible face justice. 
Canada, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Canada before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 9 November 2011.
In 2012, during the presentation of Canada’s sixth report to the Committee against Torture, the legal advisor of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada stated:
With respect to the obligation to prosecute crimes of torture and to assist other States in this regard, Canada is committed to the principle that it will not become a safe haven for persons involved in war crimes, genocide or crimes against humanity, as well as to making an effective contribution to the global effort to strengthen accountability for such crimes … Canada also believes that wherever possible, people accused of such terrible crimes should face justice in the countries in which the crimes occurred. In cases where this is not possible, international courts and tribunals and other efforts to hold perpetrators accountable for serious international crimes may be used. 
Canada, Statement by the legal advisor at the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, entitled “Presentation of Canada’s Sixth Report to the Committee against Torture”, 21 May 2012, p. 3.
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of the Friends of Children and Armed Conflict, the permanent representative of Canada stated:
Holding perpetrators to account [for] grave violations against children continues to be rare as indicated by the Secretary-General in his annual report, and yet is a crucial element towards protecting children’s rights. The Friends encourage Member States to strengthen national accountability mechanisms and judicial capacities, including by developing child protection legislations that criminalize all grave violations against children. In those cases where national authorities are unwilling or unable to hold perpetrators to account, due to lack of capacity or resources for instance, international justice mechanisms, including through the work of the International Criminal Court, and ad hoc and mixed tribunals, can and should play a complementary role. 
Canada, Statement by the permanent representative of Canada before the UN Security Council during a debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of the Friends of Children and Armed Conflict, namely Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Liechtenstein, Mali, Mexico, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Slovakia, South Africa, the Republic of Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania and Uruguay, 17 June 2013, p. 2.
In 2013, in a statement during the Twelfth Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the ambassador of Canada stated:
We believe that those responsible for serious international crimes must be held to account, for which national and, as a last resort, international mechanisms could potentially play a role.
It is disturbing that some arrest warrants are not being executed. Canada encourages all states to abide by their international commitments. 
Canada, Statement by the ambassador of Canada during the Twelfth Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 21 November 2013, p. 2.