相关规则
Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 107. Spies
Section B. Status of spies
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states:
Members of the armed forces engaging in espionage while not in uniform may be treated as spies and lose their entitlement to PW status if they are captured before rejoining the armed forces to which they belong. Spies who are not in uniform are not lawful combatants. If they engage in hostilities, they may be punished for doing so but only after a fair trial affording all judicial guarantees. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-4, §§ 34 and 35; see also p. 6-3, §§ 23 and 24.
[emphasis in original]
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
3. Members of the armed forces engaging in espionage while not in uniform may be treated as spies and lose their entitlement to PW [prisoner-of-war] status if they are captured before rejoining the armed forces to which they belong.
4. Spies who are not in uniform are not lawful combatants. If they engage in hostilities, they may be punished for doing so but only after a fair trial affording all judicial guarantees. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 320.3–4.
[emphasis in original]
In its chapter on land warfare, the manual further states:
Members of the armed forces who engage in intelligence gathering while in uniform are not considered to be spies and are entitled to PW status. Members of the armed forces who engage in espionage while not in uniform can be considered as spies. For further discussion of the status of persons captured while engaging in espionage, refer to Chapter 3 (Combatant Status). 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 611.2.
[emphasis in original]
In its chapter on the treatment of prisoners of war (PWs), the manual states: “If captured and detained, the following persons are not entitled to PW status, but they must nevertheless be treated humanely: … c. spies”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1007.1.c.
(emphasis in original)