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Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “To ensure the protection of the civilian population, combatants are required to distinguish themselves from that population when engaging in an attack or preparing to mount an attack.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-2, § 15.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”: “To ensure the protection of the civilian population, combatants are required to distinguish themselves from that population when engaging in an attack or preparing to mount an attack.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 308(1).
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides:
As a general rule, civilians are considered non-combatants and cannot lawfully engage in hostilities. There is, however, an exception to this rule for inhabitants of a territory that has not been occupied by an enemy. Where they have not had time to form themselves into regular armed units, inhabitants of a non-occupied territory are lawful combatants if:
a. on the approach of the enemy they spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces;
b. they carry arms openly; and
c. they respect the LOAC.
This situation is referred to as a levée en masse. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-2, § 13.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
As a general rule, civilians are considered non-combatants and cannot lawfully engage in hostilities. There is, however, an exception to this rule for inhabitants of a territory that has not been occupied by an enemy. Where they have not had time to form themselves into regular armed units, inhabitants of a non-occupied territory are lawful combatants if:
a. on the approach of the enemy they spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces;
b. they carry arms openly; and
c. they respect the LOAC.
This situation is referred to as a “levée en masse. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 306.
In its chapter on the treatment of prisoners of war (PWs), the manual further states: “If captured and detained, the following persons are not entitled to PW status, but they must nevertheless be treated humanely: … a. civilians who take part in hostilities other than a levée en masse”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1007.1.a.
(emphasis in original)
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states:
1. … The following personnel, immediately upon falling into the hands of a capturing force, acquire PW [prisoner-of-war] status and are protected by [the 1949 Geneva Convention III]:
f. Inhabitants of non-occupied territory who spontaneously take up arms on the approach of invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided that they carry arms openly and respect the laws of war. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 109.1.g.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states:
There may be situations where, owing to the nature of the hostilities, armed combatants (such as resistance movements) cannot normally distinguish themselves from the civilian population. In such situations, those personnel retain their status as lawful combatants and their entitlement to prisoner of war status upon capture provided that they carry their arms openly:
a. during each military engagement, and
b. during each time as they are visible to the adversary while they are engaged in a military deployment preceding the launching of an attack in which they are to participate. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-2, § 16.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
1. To ensure the protection of the civilian population, combatants are required to distinguish themselves from that population when engaging in an attack or preparing to mount an attack.
2. There may be situations where, owing to the nature of the hostilities, armed combatants (such as resistance movements) cannot normally distinguish themselves from the civilian population. In such situations, those personnel retain their status as lawful combatants and their entitlement to prisoner of war status upon capture provided they carry their arms openly:
a. during each military engagement, and
b. during such time as they are visible to the adversary while they are engaged in a military deployment preceding the launching of an attack in which they are to participate. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 308.
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states:
1. … The following personnel, immediately upon falling into the hands of a capturing force, acquire PW [prisoner-of-war] status and are protected by [the 1949 Geneva Convention III]:
b. [the Article 4(A)(2) of the 1949 Geneva Convention III list of requirements for resistance movements to be considered as combatants]
g. In certain restricted circumstances, the provision of paragraph 1b can be relaxed so that it is sufficient if a combatant carries his arms openly during each military engagement and during such time as he is visible to the adversary while he is engaged in a military deployment preceding the launching of an attack in which he is to participate. In cases of this nature, it may be necessary to hold a PW [Prisoner-of-War] Status Determination Tribunal. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 109.1.g.
At the CDDH, Canada abstained in the vote on Article 42 of the draft Additional Protocol I (now Article 44) because it “was concerned about the perhaps necessary vagueness of the language adopted in some paragraphs, but hoped that time would make the meaning more precise”. 
Canada, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.40, 26 May 1977, p. 145, § 23.
Canada further explained its understanding that the situations referred to in the second sentence of the third paragraph “could exist only in occupied territory; or in armed conflicts as described in Article 1, paragraph 4, of Protocol I” and that the term “military deployment” meant “any movement towards a place from which an attack was to be launched”. 
Canada, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.40, 26 May 1977, p. 146, § 24.
Upon ratification of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, Canada stated:
It is the understanding of the Government of Canada that:
a. the situation described in the second sentence of paragraph 3 of Article 44 can exist only in occupied territory or in armed conflicts covered by paragraph 4 of Article 1; and
b. the word “deployment” in paragraph 3 of Article 44 includes any movement towards a place from which an attack is to be launched. 
Canada, Reservations and statements of understanding made upon ratification of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, 20 November 1990, § 6.