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Burundi
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states that “[p]erfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 32.
The Regulations also states that “[p]rohibited methods of combat … [include] perfidy”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 53; see also Part I bis, p. 2.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “It is prohibited to kill, wound or capture an enemy by resort to perfidy.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 32; see also Part I bis, p. 41.
Burundi’s Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) states:
[The following are] considered as war crimes:
B. Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflicts, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
k) killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army;
D. Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
i) killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary. 
Burundi, Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Article 4(B)(k) and (D)(i).
Burundi’s Penal Code (2009) states:
“War crimes” means crimes which are committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes, in particular:
2. … [S]erious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
11°. Killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army;
5. … [S]erious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
9°. Killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary. 
Burundi, Penal Code, 2009, Article 198(2)(11°) and (5)(9°).
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “Perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection (e.g. … feigning being disabled by injuries or sickness …)”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 32; see also Part I bis, p. 95.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) lists “[f]eigning to surrender” as an example of “perfidy”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 24; see also Part I bis, p. 95.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “Perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection (e.g. … feigning the intention to negotiate under the cover of the flag of truce …)”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 32; see also Part I bis, pp. 46, 95 and 115.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “The perfidious use of the following signs and signals constitutes a grave breach [of IHL]: … distinctive sign indicating specially protected persons or objects”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 46; see also Part I bis, pp. 46, 68 and 115.
The Regulations also states: “The use of the sign of the red cross to mask military operations constitutes perfidy … [and] is considered to be a war crime.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 84.
In 2010, within the context of a Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants stated:
The CPM [Military Penal Code (1980)], in article 60, punishes … any person who, in the area of operations of a unit [and] in violation of the laws and customs of war, improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by international conventions to ensure the respect for persons, objects and places protected by these conventions.
The distinctive signs concerned are:
- The Red Cross on a white ground for the medical service and religious personnel.
Article 60 of the CPM punishes more precisely the act of perfidy under international humanitarian law. The same act is punished as a war crime by the CPO [Penal Code (2009)] in article 198(2°)(g) for international armed conflicts. 
Burundi, Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants, Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, November 2010, p. 16.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) lists “feigning to have protected status by utilizing the signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations” as an example of perfidy. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 84.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “The perfidious use of the following signs and signals constitutes a grave breach [of IHL]: … other distinctive signs recognized by the law of war”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 46; see also Part I bis, p. 68.
In 2010, within the context of a Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants stated:
The CPM [Military Penal Code (1980)], in article 60, punishes … any person who, in the area of operations of a unit [and] in violation of the laws and customs of war, improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by international conventions to ensure the respect for persons, objects and places protected by these conventions.
The distinctive signs concerned are:
- The sign of civil defence;
- The sign for the protection of cultural property;
- The signs for dams, dykes and stations for the generation of nuclear energy.
Article 60 of the CPM punishes more precisely the act of perfidy under international humanitarian law. The same act is punished as a war crime by the CPO [Penal Code (2009)] in article 198(2°)(g) for international armed conflicts. 
Burundi, Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants, Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, November 2010, p. 16.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “Perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection (e.g. … feigning to be a civilian or non-combatant).” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 95; see also Part I bis, pp. 24 and 115.
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) lists “feigning to have protected status by utilizing the signs, emblems or uniforms of … neutral States” as an example of “perfidy”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 95.