相关规则
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 37. Open Towns and Non-Defended Localities
Section B. Establishment of non-defended localities
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
727. A non-defended locality is any inhabited or uninhabited place near or in a zone where opposing armed forces are in contact and which has been declared by parties to the conflict as open for occupation by a party to the conflict. In order to be considered a non-defended locality, the following conditions must be fulfilled:
(a) all combatants, weapons and military equipment must have been evacuated or neutralised;
(b) no hostile use is made of fixed military installations or establishments;
(c) no acts of hostility are to be committed by the authorities or the population; and
(d) no activities in support of military operations shall be undertaken.
728. The presence in this locality of protected persons and police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, does not change the character of a non-defended locality.
729. A non-defended locality may be declared by a party to the conflict. That declaration must describe the geographical limits of the locality and be addressed to the relevant party to the conflict which must acknowledge its receipt and from that time treat the locality as a non-defended locality unless the conditions for establishment of the locality are not met. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, §§ 727–729; see also Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 921.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.29 The parties to the conflict may declare as a non-defended locality any inhabited or uninhabited place near or in a zone where armed forces are in contact which is open for occupation by an adverse party. In order to be considered a non-defended locality, the following conditions must be fulfilled:
• all combatants, weapons and military equipment, must have been evacuated or neutralised;
• no hostile use is made of fixed military installations or establishments;
• no acts of hostility are to be committed by the authorities or the population; and
• no activities in support of military operations shall be undertaken.
7.30 The presence in this locality of protected persons and police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, does not change the character of a non-defended locality.
7.31 The declaration of a non-defended locality must describe the geographical limits of the locality and be addressed to the relevant party to the conflict which must acknowledge its receipt and from that time treat the locality as a non-defended locality unless the conditions for establishment of the locality are not met. In that case, the locality continues to enjoy the protection provided by other provisions of Additional Protocol I and other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.
7.32 The parties to the conflict may also agree to grant the status of a non-defended locality to a particular area even if the conditions referred to in paragraph 7.29 are not fulfilled. Although there is no specific format or content for any such agreement, the principal points should be:
• the exact geographical limits of the area;
• the date and time of entry into force;
• the duration;
• the rules on marking the limits of the area and the type of marking to be used;
• persons or classes of persons authorised to enter the locality;
• if necessary, the methods of supervision; and
• the ultimate fate of the locality and the possible conditions under which the area may be occupied by enemy troops.
7.33 Non-defended localities are to be signposted and although the status may be lost when the conditions upon which it was established are no longer being satisfied, the locality shall continue to enjoy any other protection afforded by the LOAC.
7.34 Even though all the conditions are not met, the parties may agree between themselves to treat an area as a non-defended locality. The agreement should be in writing and should specify the exact geographical limits of the locality, the date and time of the entry into force of the agreement and its duration, rules on marking the locality and agreed signs, persons authorised to enter the locality, methods of supervision (if any), whether and under what conditions the locality may be occupied by enemy troops. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.29–7.34; see also § 9.40.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).