Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
Practice Relating to Rule 45. Causing Serious Damage to the Natural Environment
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) provides: “It is prohibited to use means and methods of warfare which are designed to or likely to cause massive, long-term and serious damage to the environment.”
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, in a part dealing with “war crimes against civilians”, provides for the punishment of:
any person who may order the following in violation of the rules of international law during armed conflict or occupation: … long-term and widespread damage to the natural environment which may harm the health or survival of the population, or any person who may commit [such] acts.
At the CDDH, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia stated: “Biological and ecological warfare, as developed more particularly in Vietnam, should be placed under the ban of the new body of international humanitarian law.”
This view was supported by Hungary and North Vietnam.