渊源

一、条约

条约类文件包括全球性、地区性及其他条约。 条约均按时间顺序排列,在正文中使用其简称。 完整参考资料可见脚注以及 条约清单。 “其他国内实践”包含个别国家对条约规定作出的保留意见或声明。 如需了解常见条约的批准情况,可访问: http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/party_main_treaties.htm.

Updates:

  • August 2010: treaties adopted between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007.
  • July 2014: treaties adopted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011.

二、其他文件

非条约类文件按时间顺序排列,以简称表示。相关参考资料可见脚注以及 其他文件清单 数据库编辑人员根据文件内容,将相关文件列入“其他文件”类。

Updates:

  • August 2010: other instruments adopted between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007.
  • July 2014: other instruments adopted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011.

三、军事手册

此类实践类资料包含武装部队和安全部队的各类指南,如手册、指令以及教学材料等。这类文件在正文中以英文简称表示。英文简称均由数据库编辑人员选定,以便于参阅,但并非官方简称。文件完整参考资料可见脚注以及 军事手册清单。 如需了解军事手册如何以及在何种程度上反映国家实践和 法律确信,请参阅红十字国际委员会2005年《习惯国际人道法》导论 以及题习惯国际人道法:对美国评论做出的回应

Updates:

  • March 2011 - December 2012: practice up to the end of 2007 from 80 countries.
  • August 2013 - July 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 44 countries.
  • July 2014: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • November 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 3 countries, practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • June 2016: practice up to the end of 2011 for 4 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • August 2016: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2014 for 2 countries.
  • December 2017: practice up to the end of 2010 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • March 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2016 for 1 country.
  • May 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2015 for 1 country.
  • July 2018: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2018: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country.
  • July 2019: practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2019: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country.

四、国内立法

此类实践类资料包括宪法、立法与行政命令。立法文件在正文和脚注中均以简称表示。相关参考资料可见 国内立法清单。 其他文件提及的或引用于其他文件且本数据库未收录的国内立法文件,均列入“其他国内立法实践”类,而非“国内立法”类。

Updates:

  • March 2011 - December 2012: practice up to the end of 2007 from 80 countries.
  • August 2013 - July 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 44 countries.
  • July 2014: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • November 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 3 countries, practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • June 2016: practice up to the end of 2011 for 4 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • August 2016: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2014 for 2 countries.
  • December 2017: practice up to the end of 2010 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • March 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2016 for 1 country.
  • May 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2015 for 1 country.
  • July 2018: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2018: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country.
  • July 2019: practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2019: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country.

五、国内判例法

国内判例法文件在正文和脚注中均以简称表示,文件完整参考资料可见 国内判例法清单 其他文件提及的或引用于其他文件且本数据库未收录的国内判例法文件,均列入“其他国内实践”类,而非“国内判例法”类。

Updates:

  • March 2011 - December 2012: practice up to the end of 2007 from 80 countries.
  • August 2013 - July 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 44 countries.
  • July 2014: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • November 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 3 countries, practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • June 2016: practice up to the end of 2011 for 4 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • August 2016: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2014 for 2 countries.
  • December 2017: practice up to the end of 2010 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • March 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2016 for 1 country.
  • May 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2015 for 1 country.
  • July 2018: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2018: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country.
  • July 2019: practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2019: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country.

六、其他国内实践

其他国内实践类资料包括除军事手册、国内立法和国内判例法以外的官方国家实践,如政府在议会和联合国所作的声明、官方报告、向国际法院提交的诉状以及在批准条约时所作的保留意见和声明。此类资料提及或引用数据库未收录的国内立法或判例法时,这些参考文献或引用资料均列入“其他国内实践”类,而非“国内立法”或“国内判例法”类。“其他国内实践”类资料根据国家名称按字母表顺序排列,完整参考资料可见脚注及 其他国内实践清单

Updates:

  • March 2011 - December 2012: practice up to the end of 2007 from 80 countries.
  • August 2013 - July 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 44 countries.
  • July 2014: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • November 2014: practice up to the end of 2010 for 3 countries, practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • June 2016: practice up to the end of 2011 for 4 countries, practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country.
  • August 2016: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2014 for 2 countries.
  • December 2017: practice up to the end of 2010 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • March 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2016 for 1 country.
  • May 2018: practice up to the end of 2011 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2012 for 2 countries, practice up to the end of 2015 for 1 country.
  • July 2018: practice up to the end of 2012 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2018: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country, practice up to the end of 2014 for 1 country.
  • July 2019: practice up to the end of 2013 for 1 country.
  • December 2019: practice up to the end of 2017 for 1 country.

七、联合国

此类资料包括联合国机关和机构通过的决议、发布的声明和报告,并按以下顺序排列:

  • (一)联合国安理会通过的决议
  • (二)联合国安理会主席的声明
  • (三)联合国大会通过的决议
  • (四)联合国经济及社会理事会通过的决议
  • (五)联合国人权委员会通过的决议
  • (六)联合国人权理事会通过的决议
  • (七)联合国促进和保护人权小组委员会通过的决议
  • (八)联合国专门组织和机构通过的决议
  • (九)联合国秘书长、联合国特别报告员、联合国特别委员会以及其他联合国官员和机构的声明和报告

各类别文件均以时间顺序排列。

联合国安理会、联合国大会、联合国经济及社会理事会、联合国人权委员会、联合国人权理事会以及联合国促进和保护人权小组委员会通过的决议在脚注中均以编号与日期表示,大部分决议还注有投票结果。决议全称可见相应 决议清单 关于其他决议、报告及声明的完整参考资料可见脚注。

Updates:

  • August 2010: Items (i) through (vi) have been updated up until the end of 2007. Although the database should now include UN resolutions from 1945 until 2007, there are still some gaps, in particular for the years 2000-2003. The missing resolutions will be added as soon as possible.

八、其他国际组织

此类资料包括区域性组织和联合国系统以外其他国际组织的决议、决定和报告。文件根据组织名称按字母顺序排列,各组织的文件按时间顺序排列。决议和决定在脚注中仅以编号表示。文件完整参考资料可见相应 决议和决定清单 (该清单仍在编制中,因此目前并不详尽)。

Updates: This category has not yet been updated.

九、国际会议

国际会议资料按时间顺序排列。红十字与红新月会国际大会决议在脚注中仅以编号表示。完整参考资料可见相应 决议清单(该清单仍在编制中,因此目前并不详尽)。

Updates: This category has not yet been updated.

十、国际司法机构、混合司法机构以及准司法机构

此类资料包括来自司法机构和准司法机构的文件,如判决、咨询意见、观点和一般性评论。所有文件按以下机构顺序整理编排:

  • (一)国际军事法庭(纽伦堡)和远东国际军事法庭(东京)
  • (二)国际法院
  • (三)国际刑事法院
  • (四)卢旺达问题国际刑事法庭
  • (五)前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭
  • (六)塞拉利昂问题特别法庭
  • (七)柬埔寨法院特别法庭
  • (八)人权事务委员会
  • (九)消除种族歧视委
  • (十)消除对妇女歧视委员会
  • (十一)禁止酷刑委员会
  • (十二)儿童权利委员会
  • (十三)联合国赔偿委员会
  • (十四)区域司法和准司法机构
  • (十五)仲裁庭
  • (十六)厄立特里亚-埃塞俄比亚索赔委员会

案例名称在正文和脚注中均使用简称。完整参考资料可见 相应清单。 此类别中其他文件的完整参考资料可见脚注。

Updates:

  • August 2010: Items (ii) through (viii) in this category of practice were updated up until the end of 2007. In so doing the editors decided not to include concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee on situations unrelated to armed conflict. The views of the Human Rights Committee, on the other hand, are included where they relate to situations of armed conflict or where they interpret non-derogable rights that would be deemed to be applicable in armed conflict. This assessment was made on a case by case basis.
  • August 2013 and July 2014: Items (ii) through (vii) and item (xvi) were updated up until the end of 2010.
  • August 2016: Items (ii) and (iii) were updated up until the end of 2013.

十一、国际红十字与红新月运动

此类资料按时间顺序排列。国际红十字与红新月运动代表会议的决议在脚注中仅以编号表示。文件完整参考资料可见 相应清单 (该清单仍在编制中,因此目前并不详尽)。

Updates: This category has not yet been updated.

十二、其他

此类资料包括武装反对派团体的声明、非政府组织的报告以及有关国家实践的非政府出版物和其他材料。武装冲突局势中各国与非国家参与方之间就国际人道法相关事项达成之协议的摘录,列于第六类“其他国内实践”。如果此类协议仅载有非国家参与方所作的承诺,其内 其内容则摘录于此。如需了解为何选择此类材料,请参阅红十字国际委员会2005年《习惯国际人道法》 导论
应特别指出,正如《习惯国际人道法》出版后的一篇 文章 所述,来自武装反对派团体的资料“并未用于证明习惯国际法的存在”。
此类别资料按时间顺序排列,完整参考资料可见脚注。此类别资料相应清单正在编制中。

Updates: This category has not yet been updated.