United States of America
Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section C. Ethnic cleansing
In 1992, in a report submitted pursuant to paragraph 5 of UN Security Council Resolution 771 (1992) on grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV committed in the former Yugoslavia, the United States stated:
The discrete incidents reported herein contain indications that they are part of a systematic campaign towards a single objective – the creation of an ethnically “pure” State. We have not identified “ethnic cleansing” … as a separate category of violations. Nevertheless, the rubric of ethnic cleansing may unite events that appear unconnected and may therefore prove useful in identifying persons and institutions that may be responsible for violations of established international humanitarian law.
In 1998, in reaction to the situation in Kosovo, but also referring to the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, the US Congress adopted a resolution by unanimous consent stating:
Whereas “ethnic cleansing” has been carried out in the former Yugoslavia in such a consistent and systematic way that it had to be directed by the senior political leadership in Serbia, and Slobodan Milošević has held such power within Serbia that he is responsible for the conception and direction of this policy;
it is the sense of Congress that …
the United States should publicly declare that it considers that there is reason to believe that Slobodan Milošević, President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), has committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.