Practice Relating to Rule 102. Individual Criminal Responsibility
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) considers that the fundamental guarantees for persons in the power of one party to the conflict as contained in Article 75 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I are a part of customary international law.
In a chapter on IHL rules during occupation, the manual refers to Article 33 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV and states: “Protected persons may not be punished for actions they have not themselves performed. Collective punishment of a whole group is also prohibited.”