القاعدة ذات الصلة
Zimbabwe
Practice Relating to Rule 100. Fair Trial Guarantees
Section K. Public proceedings
Zimbabwe’s Constitution (1979), as amended to 2009, states:
THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
18 Provisions to secure protection of law
(10) Except in the case of a trial such as is referred to in subsection (14) or with the agreement of all the parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other adjudicating authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.
(11) Nothing in subsection (10) shall prevent–
(a) the court or other adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings, except the announcement of its decision, persons other than the parties thereto and their legal representatives to such extent as the court or other authority–
(i) may by law be empowered so to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice, or in interlocutory proceedings, or in the interests of public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of twenty-one years or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings; or
(ii) may by law be empowered or required so to do in the interests of defence, public safety, public order or the economic interests of the State;
or
(b) the court from excluding from proceedings preliminary to trial in respect of a criminal offence persons other than the accused person and his legal representative when so required by law, unless the accused person otherwise requests.
(14) In the case of a person who is held in lawful detention, the provisions of subsection (2) shall not apply in relation to his trial for a criminal offence under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in such detention, save that the case of such person shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time, and the person or authority conducting the trial shall be regarded as a court for the purposes of this section.
26 Interpretation and other savings
(7) No measures taken in relation to a person who is a member of a disciplined force of a country with which Zimbabwe is at war or with which a state of hostilities exists and no law, to the extent that it authorises the taking of such measures, shall be held to be in contravention of the Declaration of Rights. 
Zimbabwe, Constitution, 1979, as amended to 2009, Section 18(10)–(11) and (14) and 26(7).
Zimbabwe’s Constitution (2013) states:
Chapter 4 – Declaration of Rights
69. Right to a fair hearing
(1) Every person accused of an offence has the right to a fair and public trial within a reasonable time before an independent and impartial court.
86. Limitation of rights and freedoms
(2) The fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be limited only in terms of a law of general application and to the extent that the limitation is fair, reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors, including –
(b) the purpose of the limitation, in particular whether it is necessary in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, regional or town planning or the general public interest;
(3) No law may limit the following rights enshrined in this Chapter, and no person may violate them –
(e) the right to a fair trial;
87. Limitations during public emergency
(1) In addition to the limitations permitted by section 86, the fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be further limited by a written law providing for measures to deal with situations arising during a period of public emergency, but only to the extent permitted by this section and the Second Schedule.
(4) No law that provides for a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislative or other measure taken in consequence of such a declaration may–
(a) indemnify, or permit or authorise an indemnity for, the State or any institution or agency of the government at any level, or any other person, in respect of any unlawful act; or
(b) limit any of the rights referred to in section 86(3), or authorise or permit any of those rights to be violated. 
Zimbabwe, Constitution, 2013, Sections 69(1), 86(2)(b) and (3)(e), and 87(1) and (4).