القاعدة ذات الصلة
Venezuela
Practice Relating to Rule 155. Defence of Superior Orders
Venezuela’s Constitution (2009) states:
Any act issued in the exercise of public authority that breaches or impairs the rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the laws is null and void, and public officials ordering or implementing it incur criminal, civil or administrative liability, depending on the case, and may not avail themselves of the excuse of superior orders. 
Venezuela, Constitution, 2009, Article 25.
In 2012, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, Venezuela stated:
Similarly, article 25 of the Constitution, which sets out the liability of public officials who participate in or tolerate acts of torture, does not exonerate from blame officials who claim that they were carrying out superior orders: “Any act issued in the exercise of public authority that breaches or impairs the rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the laws is null and void and public officials ordering or implementing it incur criminal, civil or administrative liability, depending on the case, and may not avail themselves of the excuse of superior orders.” 
Venezuela, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 12 February 2013, UN Doc. CAT/C/VEN/3-4, submitted 11 September 2012, § 27.
[footnote in original omitted]
In 2012, in its fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Venezuela stated:
It should be noted that, since the reform of the Criminal Code in 2000, the offence of enforced disappearance has been included as an autonomous offence that does not allow exemptions of responsibility on grounds of higher orders or instructions issued by civil, military or other authorities. 
Venezuela, Fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 29 April 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/VEN/4, submitted 18 December 2012, § 89.