القاعدة ذات الصلة
Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 97. Human Shields
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
It is prohibited to force civilians to shield military operations or take advantage of the movement of civilians to shield military operations. This rule must be interpreted with common sense. For example, it does not prevent a military commander from defending a city, and the difficulties faced by a commander operating in a populated area, particularly in a siege situation, when room for manoeuvre is limited, should be taken into account. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 26.f; see also § 26.g.(3).
The manual also states with regard to military operations in occupied territories: “It is prohibited to move protected persons or take advantage of their presence to shield certain areas from military operations.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 60.
The manual further states: “It is prohibited to move medical units or medical transports, civilians or prisoners of war or take advantage of their presence to shield certain areas or military objectives from military operations.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.e.(10).
The manual provides that war crimes include “subjecting the civilian population to attack (human shield)”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 31.a.(5).
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
It is prohibited to force civilians to shield military operations or take advantage of the movement of civilians to shield military operations. This rule must be interpreted with common sense. For example, it does not prevent a military commander from defending a city, and the difficulties faced by a commander operating in a populated area, particularly in a siege situation, when room for manoeuvre is limited, should be taken into account. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 27(f), p. 236.
With regard to military operations in occupied territories, the manual also states: “No protected person may be used to shield with their presence certain areas from military operations.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 61, p. 264.
The manual further states: “It is prohibited to move medical units or medical transports, civilians or prisoners of war or take advantage of their presence to shield certain areas or military objectives from military operations.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 28(e)(3), p. 239.
The manual provides that war crimes include “subjecting the civilian population to attack (human shield)”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 32(a)(5), p. 248.
Under Peru’s Code of Military Justice (1980), the “use of prisoners of war as … human shields” constitutes a violation of the law of nations. 
Peru, Code of Military Justice, 1980, Article 95(1).
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) prohibits “the use of internally displaced persons or their property for the purpose of protecting military objectives”. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 6(h).
Peru’s Code of Military and Police Justice (2006) states:
A member of the military or police shall be imprisoned for a period of no less than eight and no more than 15 years if he or she in the context of an international or non-international armed conflict:
4. Uses persons protected by international humanitarian law as shields for the benefit of military operations against the enemy or to impede enemy operations against certain objectives. 
Peru, Code of Military and Police Justice, 2006, Article 95(4).
This article is no longer in force. Along with certain other articles in this legislation, it was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court (en banc decision for case file No. 0012-2006-PI-TC, 8 January 2007) because it does not stipulate a crime committed in the line of duty that would fall under the jurisdiction of a military court pursuant to Article 173 of Peru’s Constitution.
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), in a chapter entitled “Crimes involving the use of prohibited methods in the conduct of hostilities”, states:
A member of the military or the police shall be punished with deprivation of liberty of not less than six years and not more than twenty-five years if, in a state of emergency and when the Armed Forces assume control of the internal order, he or she:
4. Uses persons protected under International Humanitarian Law as shields for the benefit of belligerent operations against the adversary or in order to impede the adversary’s acts against certain objects. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 91(4).
The Code defines persons protected by international humanitarian law as follows:
The following are persons protected by International Humanitarian Law:
1. In an international armed conflict, the persons protected by the Geneva Conventions I, II, III and IV of 12 August 1949 [and] Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 8 June 1977.
2. In a non-international armed conflict, the persons who benefit from protection under Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and, where relevant, the Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions of 8 June 1977.
3. In international and non-international armed conflicts, members of the armed forces and persons who directly participate in hostilities who have laid down their arms or for any other reason find themselves defenceless. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 75.