القاعدة ذات الصلة
Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 158. Prosecution of War Crimes
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
Measures and mechanisms to deal with violations are based on the obligation of the parties to a conflict to ensure that violations of international humanitarian law do not go unpunished and to prosecute those responsible in accordance with fair trial standards (due process). This is achieved by implementing the following measures:
(1) Repress and punish international war crimes. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 10.c.(1).
The manual also states: “States have the duty to put an end to any breach of the provisions of international humanitarian law and to prosecute and punish those responsible.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 83.f.
The manual further states: “The parties to the conflict must ensure that violations of international humanitarian law are punished by means of disciplinary or penal sanctions.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 101.c.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
Measures and mechanisms to deal with violations are based on the obligation of the parties to a conflict to ensure that violations of international humanitarian law do not go unpunished and to prosecute those responsible in accordance with fair trial standards (due process). This is achieved by implementing the following measures:
(1) Repress and punish international war crimes. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 10(c)(1), p. 222.
The manual further states: “The parties to the conflict must ensure that violations of international humanitarian law are punished by means of disciplinary or penal sanctions.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 92(c), p. 294.
Peru’s Code of Military Justice (1980), in a part entitled “Violations of the law of nations”, provides for the punishment of a list of offences, some of them when committed “in times of war”. 
Peru, Code of Military Justice, 1980, Articles 91–96.
Peru’s Presidential Decree on the National Human Rights Plan (2005) lists as an objective “the modification of domestic law in order to establish the mechanisms necessary to avoid impunity for the commission of international crimes”. 
Peru, Presidential Decree on the National Human Rights Plan, 2005, § 3.1.3 A1.
In 2004, in the Aquilino Carlos Portella Nuñez case, the Second Chamber of Peru’s Constitutional Court stated:
International law expressly states that it is not be possible to place procedural obstacles aimed at exempting a person from his or her responsibility for serious crimes and violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. This is based on ... the state’s obligation to investigate and punish such violations which have not yet been prosecuted. 
Peru, Constitutional Court, Aquilino Carlos Portella Nuñez case, Case No. 2310-2004-HC/TC, Judgment of 21 June 2004, § 4; see also Constitutional Court, Aquilino Carlos Portella Nuñez case, Case No. 0275-2005-HC/TC, Judgment of 9 February 2005, § 4.
In 2004, in the Gabriel Orlando Vera Navarrete case, Peru’s Constitutional Court stated:
The gravity of these acts [i.e. serious violations of IHL and human rights] has led the international community to expressly prohibit placing procedural obstacles aimed at exempting a person from his or her [criminal] responsibility for serious crimes and violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. This is based on ... the state’s obligation to investigate and punish such violations. 
Peru, Constitutional Court, Gabriel Orlando Vera Navarrete case, Case No. 2798-04-HC/TC, Judgment of 9 December 2004, § 18.