القاعدة ذات الصلة
Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 15. The Principle of Precautions in Attack
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
(8) … [T]he commander assigned to the mission must take the precautions required to ensure respect for international humanitarian law.
(9) Before taking a final decision, the commander must assess the options resulting from his analysis.
He must then assess the following factors:
(a) obstacles to the mission;
(b) precautions required under international humanitarian law;
(c) the estimated cost of the planned operation (for example, expected casualties among his own troops and civilian casualties and material damage in relation to the military advantage that can be expected to be gained).
The commander takes a decision based on his final assessment of these factors and then chooses the solution that poses the least danger to civilians and civilian property (for example, more movement and manoeuvring and less fire, action that involves less risk for the civilian environment) and is in compliance with international humanitarian law. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 24.a.(8) and (9).
The manual further states: “An attacking commander must do everything in his power to protect civilians.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 26.h.
The manual also states: “In general, in the conduct of military operations, constant care must be taken to spare the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 29.f.
The manual also provides:
(12) When the tactical situation permits, commanders should provide the civilian authorities with information on the likely course of military operations and the risks they could pose for the civilian population and civilian property.
(13) Such information often includes recommendations for specific action and/or behaviour (for example, recommendations to take shelter or stay away from specific areas or routes used by the armed forces). 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 24.a.(12)–(13).
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “All feasible precautions must be taken in the conduct of hostilities to avoid collateral damage.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 17.
The manual also states:
Every effort must be made at all times to protect the civilian population and individual civilians and preserve civilian property.
This essentially involves avoiding or at least minimizing civilian casualties and damage to civilian property, taking into account populated areas, possible locations for shelters and the need to move important civilian authorities. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.a.(3).
The manual further states: “The direction and time of the attack should be chosen with a view to minimizing the danger to civilians and civilian property.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 29.o.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
(8) … The commander assigned to the mission must take the precautions required to ensure respect for International Humanitarian Law.
(9) Before taking the final decision, the commander must assess the options resulting from his analysis.
He must then balance the following factors:
(a) Obstacles to the mission.
(b) Precautions required under International Humanitarian Law.
(c) The estimated cost of the planned operation (for example, expected casualties amongst his own armed forces and civilian casualties and material damage in relation to the military advantage that can be expected to be gained).
The commander shall take the decision which results in the least danger for civilians and civilian objects (for example, more movement and manoeuvring and less fire, action that involves less risk for the civilian environment) and is in compliance with International Humanitarian Law. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 25(a)(9), p. 224; see also § 35, p. 241.
The manual further states:
When the tactical situation permits, commanders shall provide civilian authorities with information on the likely course of military operations and the resulting risks for the civilian population and civilian objects. Such information shall at least include recommendations for specific action and/or behaviour (for example, to take shelter or stay away from certain areas or routes used by the Armed Forces). 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No.. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 25(a)(12), p. 227.
The manual also states: “All feasible precautions must be taken in the conduct of hostilities to avoid collateral damage.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 18, p. 224.
The manual further states:
b. Those who plan or take decisions on an attack must:
(2) Take all feasible precautions in the selection of weapons and tactics in order to avoid or at any rate minimize the number of deaths and injuries amongst the civilian population and damage to civilian objects. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 30(a)(2), p. 242.
The manual also states:
One must always endeavour to protect the civilian population and individual civilians, and to preserve civilian property. This essentially involves avoiding and at least minimizing the number of civilian victims and damage to civilian objects, taking into account populated areas, possible locations for shelters, opportunities of seeking shelter, and the large-scale displacement of civilian persons. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 28(a)(3), p. 237.
The manual further states: “The direction and time of the attack should be chosen with a view to minimizing the danger to civilians and civilian property.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 30(o), p. 244.
The manual also provides: “The obligation to take precautionary action falls primarily to the civilian authorities of the attacking State. Yet it only arises at the time of planning and resource allocation, for example regarding the placement of military installations.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 31(b), p. 245.
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
Those responsible for planning or deciding upon attacks must:
(1) do all that is feasible to verify that the designated target is in fact a military objective;
(2) take all feasible precautions when choosing the tactics and weapons to be used to avoid or, at least, minimize incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 29.b.(1) and (2).
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
Those responsible for planning or deciding upon attacks must:
(1) Do all that is feasible to verify that the designated target is in fact a military objective.
(2) Take all feasible precautions in the selection of weapons and tactics in order to avoid or at any rate minimize the number of deaths and injuries amongst the civilian population and damage to civilian objects. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 30(b)(1)–(2), p. 242.
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
In order to fulfil their mission, commanders require reliable information on the enemy and the area of action.
(1) To ensure that the mission is carried out in accordance with international humanitarian law, the information must include intelligence on:
(a) concentrations of civilians;
(b) civilians and civilian objects in the vicinity of military objectives;
(c) nature of urban areas (cities, villages, shelters, etc.);
(d) existence and nature of important civilian objects, particularly specifically protected objects;
(e) natural environment.
(2) It should be taken into account that a distinction must be made between permitted and prohibited methods of gathering information. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.b.
The manual further states: “The commander must draw up a list of all objects in the area under his responsibility in order to verify which of them are military objectives and which of them are protected civilian objects and persons under international humanitarian law.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 99.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
In order to fulfil their mission, commanders require adequate information on the enemy and the area of action.
(1) To comply with International Humanitarian Law, the information must include:
(a) Concentrations of civilians.
(b) The civilian environment of military objectives.
(c) The nature of urban areas (cities, villages, shelters, etc.).
(d) The existence and nature of important civilian objects, particularly specifically protected objects.
(e) The natural environment.
(2) It should be taken into account that a distinction must be made between permitted and prohibited methods of gathering information. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 30(b), p. 237.
The manual also states: “The commander must draw up a list of all objects in the area under his responsibility in order to verify them in accordance with international humanitarian law, distinguishing between military objectives and protected civilians and civilian objects.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 90, p. 291.