القاعدة ذات الصلة
Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 100. Fair Trial Guarantees
Section A. General
Peru’s Human Rights Charter of the Security Forces (1991) lists the right of a detainee to a fair trial as one of the ten basic rules. 
Peru, Derechos Humanos: Decálogo de las Fuerzas del Orden, Comando Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, Ministerio de Defensa, Ejército Peruano, 1991, Rule 8.
Peru’s Human Rights Charter of the Armed Forces (1994) states that the right to judicial guarantees is one of the main civil rights which must be respected by armed forces. 
Peru, Derechos Humanos: Principios, Normas y Procedimientos, MFA 09-1, Comando Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, Ministerio de Defensa, Ejército Peruano, Lima, Peru, May 1994, § 27(4).
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “Sentences may not be passed or penalties executed in relation to a person found guilty of a criminal offence under international humanitarian law unless a trial has been held.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 32.n.
The provision continues with the statement that a person charged with a criminal offence has a “right to a fair trial”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 32.n.(1).
In situations of non-international armed conflict, the manual states that the following acts committed against persons taking no active part in hostilities, or placed hors de combat, are prohibited:
[T]he passing of sentences … without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 71.a.(4).
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “Sentences may not be passed or penalties executed in relation to a person found guilty of a criminal offence under international humanitarian law unless a trial has been held.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 33(n), p. 251.
The provision continues with the statement that a person charged with a criminal offence has a “right to a fair trial”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 33(n)(1), p. 251.
In situations of non-international armed conflict, the manual states that the following acts committed against persons taking no active part in hostilities, or placed hors de combat, are prohibited: “[T]he passing of sentences … without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 72(a)(4), p. 270.
Peru’s Code of Military and Police Justice (2006) states: “The principles of adversarial, immediate, simple and expedient proceedings shall be observed during the entire process.” 
Peru, Code of Military and Police Justice, 2006, Article 151.
Peru’s Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces (2010) states:
With respect to the persons mentioned above [i.e. persons not directly participating in hostilities or who have laid down their arms as well as persons placed hors de combat by illness, wounds, detention or any other reason], the following actions are prohibited anytime and anywhere:
e. The passing of sentences … without previous judgment by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees.
f. Threats to carry out any of the aforementioned acts. 
Peru, Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces, 2010, Article 8.1.e–f.
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), which includes provisions on crimes under international humanitarian law, states in a chapter entitled “Procedural principles and guarantees”: “Judicial decisions, except for those that merely concern procedure, must express the factual and legal reasons on which they are based.” 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 156.
In a chapter entitled “Proceedings in times of armed conflict”, the Code states:
Article 416. - Proceedings
The procedure to be followed in proceedings during international armed conflicts shall be subject to the rules established for ordinary proceedings to the extent that they apply.
Article 417. - Rules
In these proceedings, the following rules shall be observed:
2. The statements of the accused persons shall be received without any delay, as soon as possible, and separately;
3. The declarations of the witnesses and the identification by witnesses of detainees shall be recorded in the minutes which shall be signed by the witnesses in order to declare that they are authentic, and eventually also by the judge, prosecutor and registrar;
4. If various witnesses who are present concur, only the most important statements shall be registered;
5. The military or police prosecutor may confront witnesses with one another or with the accused if he or she considers this necessary. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 416 and 417(1)–(5).