Practice Relating to Rule 44. Due Regard for the Natural Environment in Military Operations
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In addition to the chosen method or means, the type of target attacked can also lead to environmental changes. An attack on a factory or laboratory where chemical, biological or nuclear products are developed or made may have major consequences for the natural environment.
In 1991, in a letter to the President of the Dutch Parliament concerning the environmental aspects of the Gulf War, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, of Development Cooperation and of Defence of the Netherlands stated that they considered the intentional draining of oil and setting alight of hundreds of oil wells by Iraq in Kuwait to be “serious crimes against the environment”.