Practice Relating to Rule 151. Individual Responsibility
Section A. Individual criminal responsibility
Nicaragua’s Military Penal Law (1980) provides for the punishment of persons who commit “mistreatment of prisoners of war (Article 80), “looting” (Article 81), “abuses at the occasion of military activities” (Article 82) and “unlawful use of the symbols of the Red Cross” (Article 83).
Nicaragua’s Military Penal Code (1996), under the headings “Crimes against international humanitarian law” and “Specific crimes against the laws and customs of war”, provides for the punishment of certain offences. Article 47, which is subsidiary to the other articles dealing with violations of IHL, punishes any “military who, during an international or civil war commits serious violations of the international conventions ratified by Nicaragua”.
Nicaragua’s Revised Penal Code (1998) provides for the punishment of “anyone who, during an international or a civil war, commits serious violations of the international conventions relating to the use of prohibited weapons, the treatment of prisoners and other norms related to war”.