Practice Relating to Rule 146. Reprisals against Protected Persons
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, in an exercise asking students to identify IHL violations, provided the following example:
[A commander states:] “[W]hen the troops suffer major casualties they force civilians to dig graves for the dead soldiers. As the civilians belong to the camp responsible for the casualties, once they are done with the digging, soldiers kill them. It is an act of anger. The soldiers that do this are the most unprivileged persons, the illiterate, [and] those who received no education about the war.”
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states with regard to civilians that “acts of vengeance … are prohibited”.