القاعدة ذات الصلة
Côte d’Ivoire
Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
I. Grave violations
They are enumerated by the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, as well as by the Ivorian Penal Code.
They are:
- deportation or forced transfer of populations. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 29.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
I.3. War crimes
This is by far the breach which can take the most varied forms. It relates to the grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, namely the following acts directed against the persons or objects protected by these acts:
- unlawful deportation or transfer … of a civilian. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 44–45.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1998, punishes
any person who, in time of war or occupation, and in violation of … international conventions, makes an attack on the physical integrity of civilian populations or on their intellectual or moral rights … [by carrying out] their displacement or their forced dispersion, their deportation. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 1998, Article 138(3); see also Article 137(3) (forcible transfer of children to another group as a part of a genocide campaign).
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
IV.3.3. Total or partial evacuation of the civilian population
With respect to evacuations, additional limitations apply in occupied territory. The occupying power can decide to evacuate totally or partially a given zone if the security of the population or imperative military necessity so demand. This not only applies in situations of siege, but also in any situation which can arise in occupied territory. These evacuations should not demand displacements beyond the boundaries of the occupied territory, except if for material reasons such displacement is impossible to avoid. Persons evacuated in this manner must be transferred back to their homes as soon as the hostilities in the zone concerned cease. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 52; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 74.