القاعدة ذات الصلة
Côte d’Ivoire
Practice Relating to Rule 107. Spies
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
I.6. Spies
The law clearly defines spies: they are persons who, in a clandestine or disguised manner, i.e. without wearing the uniform of their armed forces, collect or try to collect information in the territory of the enemy in order to transmit it to the adversary. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 30; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 25.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
I.4.3. Spies
Espionage consists in collecting or trying to collect information on military strength by an act of false representation or an act deliberately of a clandestine nature. …
Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who collect or try to collect the information while wearing the uniform of their armed forces are not considered as participants in activities of espionage. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 24.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction): “Mercenaries and spies are not considered as combatants but benefit from humane treatment and must be tried in a manner consistent with national law.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 17.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
I. 6. Spies
The law clearly defines spies: they are persons who, in a clandestine or disguised manner, i.e. without wearing the uniform of their armed forces, collect or try to collect information in the territory of the enemy in order to transmit it to the adversary. Their protection under the terms of the law is limited. If they are captured, they do not have the right to prisoner-of-war status. They can be punished for their activities. They must nevertheless be treated humanely and have the right to a fair trial. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 30; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 25.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
I.2.5. Spies
If a State decides to use soldiers as spies, and if they are captured, these soldiers cannot invoke the status of combatants and demand to be treated as prisoners of war. On the other hand, soldiers who in the past have been used as spies and which are captured after they have resumed their normal activities must not be punished for their earlier activities of espionage.
One must not confuse spies with elements who can be sent on reconnaissance patrol or special forces operations in enemy territory. As we have already seen, units of that type wear uniform and must in no case be treated as spies. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 25.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
Chapter 2. Combatants and objectives
I.4. Unlawful combatants
I.4.3. Spies
Espionage consists in collecting or trying to collect information on military strength by an act of false representation or an act deliberately of a clandestine nature. In general, persons participating in activities of espionage can be attacked and, if they are captured during these activities, they are not entitled to prisoner-of-war [POW] status. …
Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who collect or try to collect the information while wearing the uniform of their armed forces are not considered as participants in activities of espionage. …
Members of the armed forces engaging in activities of espionage while not wearing uniform can be treated as spies and lose their right to POW status if they are captured before having rejoined the armed forces to which they belong. …
Spies who are not in uniform are not lawful combatants. If they participate in hostilities, they can be punished for their participation, but only after a fair trial provided with all judicial guarantees. …
NB: In case of doubt as to the status of persons captured during hostilities, these persons must be treated as POWs until a regularly constituted tribunal has determined their real status. If the tribunal determines that the captive is a lawful combatant, this captive is entitled to POW status. …
Chapter 4. Methods and means of warfare
I.1.5. Sabotage
Saboteurs in uniform are combatants and are entitled to POW status if they are captured.
Civilian saboteurs or saboteurs not wearing uniform do not receive that protection and risk being treated as spies. They can be brought to justice in conformity with the laws of the force which has captured them and can incur the death penalty. They can, however, not be punished without a fair trial.
Chapter 5. Prisoners of war
I.2. Persons not entitled to POW status
If they are captured and detained, the following persons are not entitled to POW status, but they shall nevertheless be treated humanely:
- spies.
I.2.3. POW status determination procedure
When one cannot determine whether a given prisoner is entitled to be treated as POW, the prisoner is treated as such until his status has been determined by a regularly constituted tribunal …
Nationality has no effect on the right to POW status. That right depends on the country to which the armed forces belong, thus, even if the country of the prisoner is neutral, a national serving with a Party to the conflict becomes a POW if he is captured. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 17, 23, 24–25, 45, 47, 59 and 60.