القاعدة ذات الصلة
Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 29. Medical Transports
Section A. Respect for and protection of medical transports
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states:
92. Medical transports of all types (land, sea, air) are protected and must not be attacked.
93. Medical transports should not be armed (i.e. crew-served weapons) because of the danger that they be mistaken as fighting vehicles. Medical personnel in the medical transports can, however, retain their personal weapons. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-9, §§ 92–93; see also p. 9-4, §§ 35–36.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states: “Medical … transports are to be respected and protected at all times and not be made the object of attack.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-4, § 34.
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) states:
Opposing forces transports for the wounded and sick, or of medical equipment, shall be respected as soon as they are identified as such and protected in the same manner as mobile medical units … As a general rule medical transports should not have any weapons “mounted” on them to avoid being mistaken for fighting vehicles. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 10, §§ 5–6.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting:
1. Medical transports of all types (land, sea and air) are protected and must not be attacked.
2. Medical transports should not be armed (i.e., crew-served weapons) because of the danger that they may be mistaken as fighting vehicles. Medical personnel in the medical transports can, however, retain their personal weapons. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 448.1–2.
In its chapter on the treatment of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, the manual states:
918. Protection of medical establishments, transport, aircraft and hospital ships
1. Medical establishments on land, hospital ships, medical aircraft, and medical transports must be respected and protected at all times and must not be attacked. If they are used for purposes hostile to the adverse party and outside their humanitarian purpose, protection may cease. Protection will only cease, however, following a clear warning which has remained unheeded.
919. Medical units, establishments, and transport
1. Medical units and establishments, whether military or civilian, organized for medical purposes, may be fixed or mobile, permanent or temporary. Medical transports are any means of transportation, military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical transportation and under control of a competent authority of a party to the conflict. The rights guaranteed by the Conventions apply equally to both temporary and permanent personnel, units and transports.
2. The material of mobile medical units falling into enemy hands must be reserved for the care of wounded and sick. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, §§ 918–919.
In its chapter entitled “Treatment of civilians in the hands of a party to the conflict or an occupying power”, the manual provides:
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land, and specially provided vessels at sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, must be protected and respected in the same way as civilian hospitals. Subject to the consent of the State they must bear the distinctive Red Cross or Red Crescent emblem provided for hospitals. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1112.1.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflicts, the manual states:
Medical units and transports are to be respected at all times and not be made the object of attack. This protection shall only cease if they commit hostile acts outside their humanitarian function. In such circumstances, a warning must be given, and protection only ceases if such warning remains unheeded. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1719.2.
Rule 10 of Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) states:
5. Opposing forces transports for the wounded and sick, or of medical equipment, shall be respected as soon as they are identified as such and protected in the same manner as mobile medical units. If captured the wounded and sick in the transports will be properly cared for.
6. … As a general rule medical transports should not have any weapons “mounted” on them to avoid being mistaken for fighting vehicles. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 10, §§ 5–6.