القاعدة ذات الصلة
Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Section B. Levée en masse
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides:
As a general rule, civilians are considered non-combatants and cannot lawfully engage in hostilities. There is, however, an exception to this rule for inhabitants of a territory that has not been occupied by an enemy. Where they have not had time to form themselves into regular armed units, inhabitants of a non-occupied territory are lawful combatants if:
a. on the approach of the enemy they spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces;
b. they carry arms openly; and
c. they respect the LOAC.
This situation is referred to as a levée en masse. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-2, § 13.
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
As a general rule, civilians are considered non-combatants and cannot lawfully engage in hostilities. There is, however, an exception to this rule for inhabitants of a territory that has not been occupied by an enemy. Where they have not had time to form themselves into regular armed units, inhabitants of a non-occupied territory are lawful combatants if:
a. on the approach of the enemy they spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces;
b. they carry arms openly; and
c. they respect the LOAC.
This situation is referred to as a “levée en masse. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 306.
In its chapter on the treatment of prisoners of war (PWs), the manual further states: “If captured and detained, the following persons are not entitled to PW status, but they must nevertheless be treated humanely: … a. civilians who take part in hostilities other than a levée en masse”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1007.1.a.
(emphasis in original)
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states:
1. … The following personnel, immediately upon falling into the hands of a capturing force, acquire PW [prisoner-of-war] status and are protected by [the 1949 Geneva Convention III]:
f. Inhabitants of non-occupied territory who spontaneously take up arms on the approach of invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided that they carry arms openly and respect the laws of war. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 109.1.g.