Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
Practice Relating to Rule 1. The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states:
The armed forces are an instrument of force and [may be] the direct object of attack. It is permitted to kill, wound or disable their members in combat, except where they surrender or when due to wounds or sickness they are disabled for combat.
The manual further specifies: “It is permitted to directly attack only members of the armed forces and other persons – only if they directly participate in military operations.”
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states: “The civilian population may not be the direct object of military operations.”
Under the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, it is a war crime to commit or order the commission of “an attack on the civilian population … [or] individual civilians”.