Practice Relating to Rule 61. Improper Use of Other Internationally Recognized Emblems
France’s Disciplinary Regulations (1975), as amended, states that it is prohibited “to use improperly … the distinctive signs provided for in international conventions”.
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) prohibits the improper use of the symbols of civil defence, cultural property, works and installations containing dangerous forces and other recognized symbols.
France’s Code of Military Justice (1982) punishes:
any individual, military or not, who, in time of war, in the area of operations of a force or unit, in violation of the laws and customs of war, uses improperly the distinctive signs and emblems defined by international conventions to ensure respect for persons, objects and places protected by those conventions.
France’s Code of Military Justice (2006) states:
The offence by any person, military or not, who in times of war, in the area of operations of a force or unit, in violation of the laws and customs of war, improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by the international conventions to ensure the respect of persons, objects and places protected by these conventions, is punished with five years’ imprisonment.
France’s Code of Defence (2004), as amended in 2008, states: “[Combatants] are … prohibited to improperly use … the distinctive emblems recognized by international law.”