Several proposals were made after 1864, especially by the International Conferences of the Red Cross Societies, for the revision of the Convention of 1864. They led first to the adoption of the Additional Articles of 1868 and of the Convention of 1899 concerning maritime warfare. The Hague Peace Conference of 1899, in its Final Act, expressed the wish that a special conference be convened for the revision of the Geneva Convention of 1864. In 1906 this conference was organized by the Swiss Government and attended by 35 States. On the basis of proposals submitted to it by the International Committee of the Red Cross the conference adopted the new Convention which replaced the 1864 Convention in the relations between the Contracting States.
With 33 articles divided into eight chapters, the Convention of 1906 is more detailed and more precise in its terminology than the Convention of 1864. New provisions were included concerning the burial of the dead and the transmission of information. The voluntary aid societies were for the first time expressly recognized. On the other hand, provisions which had proved to be impracticable were changed. The prerogatives of the inhabitants bringing help to the wounded were reduced to more reasonable proportions, and the duty to repatriate the wounded who are unfit for further service was transformed into a mere recommendation.
The Convention of 1906 was replaced by the Geneva Convention of 1929, but remained in force until 1970, when the last State party to it which had not yet adhered to one of the later Conventions (Costa Rica) acceded to the Conventions of 1949.