The Mine-Ban Convention (also known as the "Ottawa Treaty") was the result of the so-called "Ottawa Process" launched by the Government of Canada following the First Review Conference for the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons which was unable to adopt far-reaching prohibitions or restrictions on anti-personnel mines. In October 1996, at the closing session of an international strategy Conference of pro-ban States “Towards a Global Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines”, Canada's Foreign Minister called upon States to return to Ottawa in December 1997 to sign a treaty totally prohibiting anti-personnel mines.
Following the successful adoption in December 1996 of UN General Assembly Resolution 51/45S which called upon all countries to conclude a new international agreement totally prohibiting anti-personnel mines "as soon as possible.", the government of Austria circulated a draft treaty to all governments and many international organisations. A general exchange of views on the content of the Austrian draft took place in Vienna from 12-14 February 1997. From 25-26 April 1997 the government of Germany hosted a meeting in Bonn to discuss the verification of such a treaty. The Belgian government hosted the official follow-up to the 1996 Ottawa Conference "The Brussels International Conference for a Total Global Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines" from 24-27 June 1997. Representatives of 154 countries attended — the largest ever gathering of governments to date for a conference devoted specifically to the issue of landmines. On the closing day, 97 governments signed the “Brussels Declaration” calling for a Diplomatic Conference in Oslo to formally negotiate a comprehensive ban treaty on the basis of the Austrian draft text.
The "Oslo Diplomatic Conference on a Total Global Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines" took place from 1-18 September 1997 and at the closing session 89 States solemnly adopted the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction.