Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
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Commentary of 2020 
Contents
Foreword by Peter Maurer
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Introduction
Project team
Preamble
Iris Müller
PART I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1: Respect for the Convention
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 2: Application of the Convention
Tristan Ferraro and Lindsey Cameron
Article 3: Conflicts not of an international character
Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye and Iris Müller, with contributions by Cordula Droege, Robin Geiss and Laurent Gisel
Article 4: Prisoners of war
Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jemma Arman, Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Heleen Hiemstra
Article 5: Beginning and end of application
Lindsey Cameron, Jemma Arman and Heleen Hiemstra
Article 6: Special agreements
Lindsey Cameron
Article 7: Non-renunciation of rights
Lindsey Cameron
Article 8: Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 9: Activities of the ICRC and other impartial humanitarian organizations
Bruno Demeyere
Article 10: Substitutes for Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 11: Conciliation procedure
Sylvain Vité
PART II. GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRISONERS OF WAR
Article 12: Responsibility for the treatment of prisoners and conditions for their transfer to another Power
Ellen Nohle and Heleen Hiemstra
Article 13: Humane treatment of prisoners
Eve La Haye and Heike Niebergall-Lackner, with contributions by Anna Leshchinskaya
Article 14: Respect for the persons and honour of prisoners
Heike Niebergall-Lackner, with contributions by Helen Durham
Article 15: Maintenance of prisoners
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 16: Equality of treatment of prisoners
Heike Niebergall-Lackner and Heleen Hiemstra
PART III. CAPTIVITY
SECTION I. BEGINNING OF CAPTIVITY
Article 17: Questioning of prisoners
Gary Solis
Article 18: Property of prisoners
Gary Solis
Article 19: Evacuation of prisoners
Gary Solis
Article 20: Conditions of evacuation of prisoners
Gary Solis
SECTION II. INTERNMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR
Chapter I. General observations
Article 21: Restriction of liberty of movement and release on parole
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 22: Places and conditions of internment
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 23: Security of prisoners
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 24: Permanent transit camps
Heleen Hiemstra
Chapter II. Quarters, food and clothing of prisoners of war
Article 25: Quarters
Bruce Oswald
Article 26: Food
Bruce Oswald
Article 27: Clothing
Bruce Oswald
Article 28: Canteens
Bruce Oswald
Chapter III. Hygiene and medical attention
Article 29: Hygiene
Alexander Breitegger
Article 30: Medical attention
Alexander Breitegger
Article 31: Medical inspections
Alexander Breitegger
Article 32: Prisoners engaged on medical duties
Bruno Demeyere
Chapter IV. Medical personnel and chaplains retained to assist prisoners of war
Article 33: Rights and privileges of retained personnel
Jann Kleffner
Chapter V. Religious, intellectual and physical activities
Article 34: Religious duties
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 35: Retained chaplains assisting prisoners
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 36: Prisoners who are ministers of religion
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 37: Prisoners without a minister of their religion
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 38: Intellectual, educational and recreational pursuits, sports and games
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Chapter VI. Discipline
Article 39: Administration. Saluting
Eve La Haye and Charles Garraway
Article 40: The wearing of badges and decorations
Eve La Haye and Charles Garraway
Article 41: Posting of the Convention, and of regulations and orders concerning prisoners
Eve La Haye and Charles Garraway
Article 42: Use of weapons against prisoners of war
Gloria Gaggioli
Chapter VII. Rank of prisoners of war
Article 43: Notification of ranks
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 44: Treatment of officers
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 45: Treatment of other prisoners of war
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Chapter VIII. Transfer of prisoners of war after their arrival in camp
Article 46: Conditions for transfer of prisoners
Sean Watts
Article 47: Circumstances precluding transfer of prisoners
Sean Watts
Article 48: Procedure for transfer of prisoners
Sean Watts
SECTION III. LABOUR OF PRISONERS OF WAR
Article 49: General observations on labour of prisoners of war
Eve La Haye
Article 50: Authorized work
Eve La Haye
Article 51: Working conditions
Eve La Haye
Article 52: Dangerous or humiliating labour
Eve La Haye
Article 53: Duration of labour
Eve La Haye
Article 54: Working pay. Occupational accidents and diseases
Eve La Haye
Article 55: Medical supervision
Eve La Haye
Article 56: Labour detachments
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 57: Prisoners working for private employers
Heleen Hiemstra
SECTION IV. FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF PRISONERS OF WAR
Article 58: Ready money
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 59: Amounts in cash taken from prisoners
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 60: Advances of pay
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 61: Supplementary pay
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 62: Working pay
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 63: Transfer of funds
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 64: Prisoners’ accounts
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 65: Management of prisoners’ accounts
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 66: Winding up of prisoners’ accounts
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 67: Arrangements between Parties to the conflict
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 68: Claims for compensation
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
SECTION V. RELATIONS OF PRISONERS OF WAR WITH THE EXTERIOR
Article 69: Notification of measures taken
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 70: Capture cards
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 71: Correspondence
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 72: Relief shipments: General principles
Bruno Demeyere
Article 73: Collective relief shipments
Bruno Demeyere
Article 74: Relief shipments: Exemption from charges and dues
Bruno Demeyere
Article 75: Special means of transport
Bruno Demeyere
Article 76: Censorship and examination
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 77: Preparation, execution and transmission of legal documents
Sandesh Sivakumaran
SECTION VI. RELATIONS BETWEEN PRISONERS OF WAR AND THE AUTHORITIES
Chapter I. Complaints of prisoners of war respecting the conditions of captivitiy
Article 78: Complaints and requests from prisoners
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Chapter II. Prisoner of war representatives
Article 79: Election of prisoners’ representatives
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 80: Duties of prisoners’ representatives
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 81: Prerogatives of prisoners’ representatives
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Chapter III. Penal and disciplinary sanctions
I. General Provisions
Article 82: Applicable legislation
Ellen Nohle and Yvette Issar
Article 83: Choice of disciplinary or judicial proceedings
Ellen Nohle and Yvette Issar
Article 84: Courts
Ellen Nohle and Yvette Issar
Article 85: Offences committed before capture
Ellen Nohle and Yvette Issar
Article 86: The prohibition against double jeopardy (non bis in idem)
Ellen Nohle and Yvette Issar
Article 87: Penalties
Jose Serralvo
Article 88: Execution of penalties
Julia Grignon and Yvette Issar
II. Disciplinary Sanctions
Article 89: Forms of disciplinary punishment
Tilman Rodenhäuser
Article 90: Duration of disciplinary punishments
Tilman Rodenhäuser
Article 91: Successful escape
Gloria Gaggioli
Article 92: Unsuccessful escape
Gloria Gaggioli
Article 93: Escapes: Connected offences
Gloria Gaggioli
Article 94: Escapes: Notification of recapture
Gloria Gaggioli
Article 95: Disciplinary procedure: Confinement awaiting hearing
Wang Haiping
Article 96: Disciplinary procedure: Competent authorities and rights of defence
Wang Haiping
Article 97: Execution of disciplinary punishment: Premises
Wang Haiping
Article 98: Execution of disciplinary punishment: Essential safeguards
Wang Haiping
III. Judicial Proceedings
Article 99: Judicial procedure: General principles
Ellen Nohle
Article 100: Death penalty
Tilman Rodenhäuser
Article 101: Delay in execution of the death penalty
Tilman Rodenhäuser
Article 102: Judicial procedure: Conditions for validity of sentence
Ellen Nohle
Article 103: Judicial investigations and confinement awaiting trial
Yvette Issar
Article 104: Notification of judicial proceedings
Yvette Issar
Article 105: Rights and means of defence
Yvette Issar
Article 106: Appeals
Yvette Issar
Article 107: Notification of judgments and sentences
Yvette Issar
Article 108: Execution of judicial penalties: Premises and essential safeguards
Julia Grignon and Yvette Issar
PART IV. TERMINATION OF CAPTIVITY
SECTION I. DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES
Article 109: Direct repatriation and accommodation in neutral countries: General observations
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 110: Cases of repatriation and accommodation
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 111: Internment in a neutral country
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 112: Mixed medical commissions
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 113: Prisoners entitled to examination by mixed medical commissions
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 114: Prisoners meeting with accidents
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 115: Prisoners serving a sentence
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 116: Costs of repatriation
Heleen Hiemstra
Article 117: Activity after repatriation
Heleen Hiemstra
SECTION II. RELEASE AND REPATRIATION OF PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE CLOSE OF HOSTILITIES
Article 118: Release and repatriation
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 119: Details of repatriation procedure
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
SECTION III. DEATH OF PRISONERS OF WAR
Article 120: Prescriptions regarding the dead, including wills and death certificates
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 121: Prisoners killed or injured in special circumstances
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
PART V. INFORMATION BUREAUX AND RELIEF SOCIETIES FOR PRISONERS OF WAR
Article 122: National information bureaux
Anne-Marie La Rosa
Article 123: Central Tracing Agency
Anne-Marie La Rosa
Article 124: Exemption from charges of national information bureaux and the Central Tracing Agency
Bruno Demeyere
Article 125: Facilities for relief societies and other organizations assisting prisoners of war
Bruno Demeyere
PART VI. EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION
SECTION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 126: Supervision by the Protecting Powers and the ICRC
Catherine Deman
Article 127: Dissemination of the Convention
Iris Müller and Bruno Demeyere
Article 128: Translations. Implementing laws and regulations
Iris Müller
Article 129: Penal sanctions
Eve La Haye
Article 130: Grave breaches
Knut Dörmann and Eve La Haye
Article 131: Responsibilities of the Contracting Parties
Eve La Haye
Article 132: Enquiry procedure
Sylvain Vité
SECTION II. FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 133: Languages
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 134: Relation to the 1929 Convention
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 135: Relation to the 1899 or 1907 Hague Conventions
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 136: Signature
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 137: Ratification
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 138: Coming into force
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 139: Accession
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 140: Notification of accessions
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 141: Immediate effect
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 142: Denunciation
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker, with contributions by Iris Müller
Article 143: Registration with the United Nations
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Testimonium and signature clause
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
ANNEX I. MODEL AGREEMENT CONCERNING DIRECT REPATRIATION AND ACCOMODATION IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES OF WOUNDED AND SICK PRISONERS OF WAR
(see Article 110)
I. Principles for direct repatriation and accommodation in neutral countries
A. Direct repatriation
B. Accommodation in neutral countries
II. General observations
ANNEX II. REGULATIONS CONCERNING MIXED MEDICAL COMMISSIONS
(see Article 112)
(Articles I to 14)
ANNEX III. REGULATIONS CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF
(see Article 73)
(Articles 1 to 9)
ANNEX IV
A. Identity card
(see Article 4)
B. Capture card
(see Article 70)
C. Correspondence card and letter (1. Card // 2. Letter)
(see Article 71)
D. Notification of death
(see Article 120)
E. Repatriation certificate
(see Annex II, Article II)
ANNEX V. MODEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING PAYMENTS SENT BY PRISONERS TO THEIR OWN COUNTRY
(see Article 63)
Sources
Index