Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
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Commentary of 2016 
Contents
Foreword by Peter Maurer
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Introduction
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Preamble
Iris Müller
Chapter I. General provisions
Article 1: Respect for the Convention
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 2: Application of the Convention
Tristan Ferraro and Lindsey Cameron
Article 3: Conflicts not of an international character
Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye and Iris Müller, with contributions by Cordula Droege, Robin Geiss and Laurent Gisel
Article 4: Application by neutral Powers
Bruno Demeyere
Article 5: Duration of application
Lindsey Cameron
Article 6: Special agreements
Lindsey Cameron
Article 7: Non-renunciation of rights
Lindsey Cameron
Article 8: Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 9: Activities of the ICRC and other impartial humanitarian organizations
Bruno Demeyere
Article 10: Substitutes for Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 11: Conciliation procedure
Sylvain Vité
Chapter II. Wounded and sick
Article 12: Protection and care of the wounded and sick
Robin Geiss, with contributions by Helen Durham
Article 13: Protected persons
Lindsey Cameron
Article 14: Status of the wounded and sick who have fallen into enemy hands
Lindsey Cameron
Article 15: Search for casualties. Evacuation
Robin Geiss
Article 16: Recording and forwarding of information
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 17: Prescriptions regarding the dead. Graves Registration Service
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 18: Role of the population
Lindsey Cameron
Chapter III. Medical units and establishments
Article 19: Protection of medical units and establishments
Alexander Breitegger
Article 20: Protection of hospital ships
Bruno Demeyere
Article 21: Discontinuance of protection of medical units and establishments
Alexander Breitegger
Article 22: Conditions not depriving medical units and establishments of protection
Alexander Breitegger
Article 23: Hospital zones and localities
Iris Müller
Chapter IV. Personnel
Article 24: Protection of permanent personnel
Bruno Demeyere
Article 25: Protection of auxiliary personnel
Bruno Demeyere
Article 26: Personnel of aid societies
Bruno Demeyere
Article 27: Societies of neutral countries
Bruno Demeyere
Article 28: Retained personnel
Jann K. Kleffner
Article 29: Status of auxiliary personnel who have fallen into enemy hands
Bruno Demeyere
Article 30: Return of medical and religious personnel
Bruno Demeyere
Article 31: Selection of personnel for return
Bruno Demeyere
Article 32: Return of personnel belonging to neutral countries
Bruno Demeyere
Chapter V. Buildings and material
Article 33: Buildings and material of medical units and establishments
Eve La Haye
Article 34: Property of aid societies
Eve La Haye
Chapter VI. Medical transports
Article 35: Protection of medical transports
Geoffrey S. Corn
Article 36: Medical aircraft
Geoffrey S. Corn
Article 37: Flight over neutral countries. Landing of the wounded and sick
Geoffrey S. Corn
Chapter VII. The distinctive emblem
Article 38: Emblem of the Convention
Michael Meyer
Article 39: Use of the emblem
Michael Meyer
Article 40: Identification of medical and religious personnel
Lindsey Cameron
Article 41: Identification of auxiliary personnel
Lindsey Cameron
Article 42: Marking of medical units and establishments
Alexander Breitegger
Article 43: Marking of units of neutral countries
Lindsey Cameron
Article 44: Restrictions in the use of the emblem. Exceptions
Michael Meyer
Chapter VIII. Execution of the Convention
Article 45: Detailed execution. Unforeseen cases
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Dana Constantin
Article 46: Prohibition of reprisals
Eve La Haye
Article 47: Dissemination of the Convention
Iris Müller
Article 48: Translations. Implementing laws and regulations
Iris Müller
Chapter IX. Repression of abuses and infractions
Article 49: Penal sanctions
Eve La Haye
Article 50: Grave breaches
Knut Dörmann and Eve La Haye
Article 51: Responsibilities of the Contracting Parties
Eve La Haye
Article 52: Enquiry procedure
Sylvain Vité
Article 53: Misuse of the emblem
Michael Meyer
Article 54: Prevention of misuse of the emblem
Michael Meyer
Final provisions
Article 55: Languages
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 56: Signature
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 57: Ratification
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 58: Coming into force
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 59: Relation to previous Conventions
Iris Müller
Article 60: Accession
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 61: Notification of accessions
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 62: Immediate effect
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 63: Denunciation
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker, with contributions by Iris Müller
Article 64: Registration with the United Nations
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Testimonium and signature clause
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Sources
Index