Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
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Commentary of 1952 

We have seen that in the case of the signatory Powers, the Convention becomes binding following ratification by them. We now see that any Power which has not signed the Convention may accede to it.
No limitation or condition is imposed except that the Convention must have already entered into force. The invitation is addressed to all States, whether they are or are not parties to one of the earlier Conventions. The Geneva Convention, which draws its strength from its traditional universality is, as in 1929, pre-eminently a treaty open to all. (1)
[p.409] Accession is exactly the same in its effect as ratification, to which it is equivalent in all respects.
An accession can, however, only take place after the entry into force of the Convention, that is to say, six months after the first two instruments of ratification have been deposited. The Convention has thus been open to accession since 21 October 1951.

* (1) [(3) p.408] The Geneva Convention of 1906 did not yet
possess this characteristic in the same degree. (See
Article 32 of the Convention in question.);