Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
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Commentary of 2017 
Contents
Foreword by ICRC President Peter Maurer
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Bruno Demeyere
Preamble
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Chapter I. General provisions
Article 1: Respect for the Convention
Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Article 2: Application of the Convention
Tristan Ferraro and Lindsey Cameron
Article 3: Conflicts not of an international character
Lindsey Cameron, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Eve La Haye and Iris Müller, with contributions by Cordula Droege, Robin Geiss and Laurent Gisel
Article 4: Field of application
Bruno Demeyere
Article 5: Application by neutral Powers
Bruno Demeyere
Article 6: Special agreements
Lindsey Cameron
Article 7: Non-renunciation of rights
Lindsey Cameron
Article 8: Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 9: Activities of the ICRC and other impartial humanitarian organizations
Bruno Demeyere
Article 10: Substitutes for Protecting Powers
François Bugnion
Article 11: Conciliation procedure
Sylvain Vité
Chapter II. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked
Article 12: Protection and care of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked
Robin Geiss, with contributions by Lindsey Cameron and Helen Durham
Article 13: Protected persons
Lindsey Cameron
Article 14: Handing over of wounded, sick and shipwrecked to a belligerent
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 15: Wounded, sick and shipwrecked taken on board a neutral warship or neutral military aircraft
Bruno Demeyere
Article 16: Status of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked who have fallen into enemy hands
Lindsey Cameron
Article 17: Wounded, sick and shipwrecked landed in a neutral port
Bruno Demeyere
Article 18: Search for casualties after an engagement
Robin Geiss, with contributions by Bruno Demeyere
Article 19: Recording and forwarding of information
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 20: Presriptions regarding the dead
Sandesh Sivakumaran
Article 21: Appeals to neutral vessels
Bruno Demeyere
Chapter III. Hospital ships
Article 22: Notification and protection of military hospital ships
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 23: Protection of medical establishments ashore
Bruno Demeyere
Article 24: Hospital ships utilized by relief societies and private persons of Parties to the conflict
Bruno Demeyere
Article 25: Hospital ships utilized by relief societies and private persons of neutral countries
Bruno Demeyere
Article 26: Tonnage of hospital ships
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 27: Protection of coastal rescue craft and fixed coastal installations
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 28: Protection of sick-bays
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 29: Hospital ships in a port fallen into enemy hands
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 30: Employment of hospital ships and coastal rescue craft
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 31: Right of control and search of hospital ships and coastal rescue craft
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 32: Stay of hospital ships and coastal rescue craft in a neutral port
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 33: Converted merchant vessels
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 34: Discontinuance of protection of hospital ships
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Article 35: Conditions not depriving hospital ships of protection
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Chapter IV. Personnel
Article 36: Protection of the personnel of hospital ships
Bruno Demeyere
Article 37: Protection of medical and religious personnel of other ships
Bruno Demeyere
Chapter V. Medical transports
Article 38: Ships used for the conveyance of medical equipment
Eve La Haye
Article 39: Medical aircraft
Geoffrey S. Corn
Article 40: Flight over neutral countries. Landing of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked
Geoffrey S. Corn
Chapter VI. The distinctive emblem
Article 41: Use of the emblem
Michael Meyer
Article 42: Identification of medical and religious personnel
Lindsey Cameron
Article 43: Marking of hospital ships and coastal rescue craft
Bruno Demeyere
Article 44: Limitation in the use of the distinctive signs
Lindsey Cameron and Bruno Demeyere
Article 45: Prevention of misuse of the distinctive signs
Michael Meyer
Chapter VII. Execution of the Convention
Article 46: Detailed execution. Unforeseen cases
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Dana Constantin
Article 47: Prohibition of reprisals
Eve La Haye
Article 48: Dissemination of the Convention
Iris Müller
Article 49: Translations. Implementing laws and regulations
Iris Müller
Chapter VIII. Repression of abuses and infractions
Article 50: Penal sanctions
Eve La Haye
Article 51: Grave breaches
Knut Dörmann and Eve La Haye
Article 52: Responsibilities of the Contracting Parties
Eve La Haye
Article 53: Enquiry procedure
Sylvain Vité
Final provisions
Article 54: Languages
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 55: Signature
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 56: Ratification
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 57: Coming into force
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 58: Relation to the 1907 Hague Convention (X)
Heike Niebergall-Lackner
Article 59: Accession
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 60: Notification of accessions
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 61: Immediate effect
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Article 62: Denunciation
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker, with contributions by Iris Müller
Article 63: Registration with the United Nations
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Testimonium and signature clause
Stephan Michel and Claude Schenker
Sources
Index