Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries
Treaties and Documents
Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries
Historical Treaties and Documents
Draft International Convention on the Condition and Protection of Civilians of enemy nationality who are on territory belonging to or occupied by a belligerent. Tokyo, 1934.
Chapter III: Enemy civilians in territory occupied by a belligerent - Art. 19.
Article 19.- The High Contracting Parties further undertake to observe the following provisions:
a) In the event of it appearing, in an exceptional case, indispensable for an occupying Power to take hostages, the latter shall always be treated humanely. Under no pretext shall they be put to death or submitted to corporal punishments;
b) Deportations outside the territory of the occupied State are forbidden, unless they are evacuations intended, on account of the extension of military operations, to ensure the security of the inhabitants;
c) Enemy civilians shall have the possibility of giving news of a strictly private character to next of kin in the interior of occupied territory and of receiving such news. The same possibility shall be granted for correspondence with the exterior, subject to the measures applied to the population of the occupying Power, in general. With the same reservation enemy civilians shall have the possibility of receiving relief.
d) Enemy civilians shall also benefit by the provisions of Article 8
of the present Convention.