Loi no 98/036 du 31 décembre 1998 portant code pénal
The Penal Code covers both civilians and the military, and therefore includes provisions protecting individuals from medical experiments (Art. 332), arbitrary arrest and detention (Arts. 333 and 335), illegal jurisdictions (Art. 600) and hostage-taking (Art. 336); it prohibits pillage (Arts. 569 and 570) and misuse of the emblems and distinctive signs by the armed forces (Art. 579). In addition, it states that it is without prejudice to the provisions of "the laws and customs of war and international conventions" (Art. 525).
Article 581 sets out the levels of responsibility within the military system: accomplices, superiors, instigators, etc. It severely punishes violations of duties and discipline (in some cases referring to obligations under international humanitarian law) committed "in time of armed conflict or in territory subject to a state of siege or emergency" or "in the presence of the enemy, rebels or an armed group".