On 18 May 1992, the Constitution of the Turkmenistan was adopted by the Supreme Council of Turkmenistan and promulgated by the President.
Under Article 1 Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal and secular state in which the government takes the form of presidential republic. The constitutional provisions on the form of governance as a presidential republic cannot be changed (Article 116). With reference to the UN General Assembly resolution "Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan" dated 12 December 1995, the Constitution proclaims the status of neutrality of Turkmenistan.
Article 6 reads as follows, “Turkmenistan, being a full subject of the global community, has the foreign policy of permanent neutrality, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, refrains from the use of force and participation in military blocs and alliances, promotes peaceful, friendly and mutually beneficial relations with countries in the region and states of the whole world. Turkmenistan recognizes the priority of the universally accepted norms of international law. If an international treaty (contract) of Turkmenistan establishes rules other than those stipulated by the laws of Turkmenistan, the rules of international treaty will apply.”
Article 7 provides for the extradition procedure and declares that a citizen of Turkmenistan cannot be extradited to another state or expelled from the limits of Turkmenistan, or restricted in the right to return to the homeland. The citizens of Turkmenistan are guaranteed the protection and patronage of the state in the territory of Turkmenistan and beyond its borders.
Section 2 outlines rights of individuals and citizens. Civil and political rights include equality rights (Article 19), freedom from cruel and unusual punishment (Article 2), and freedom of movement (Article 26). Article 21 states that the exercise of individual rights and freedoms should not impinge on the rights and freedoms of other individuals and can be limited by considerations of morality, law, and public order. Article 22 declares that everybody has the right to life and that capital punishment is abolished in Turkmenistan. The 1992 Constitution allowed capital punishment, but only for "the heaviest of crimes" (Article 20), and this provision was subsequently annulled by a 1999 presidential decree that abolished capital punishment.